Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 1-12, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.001

Cytogenetic variability among Bradyporinae species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

Elżbieta WARCHAŁOWSKA-ŚLIWA1, Beata GRZYWACZ1, Anna MARYAŃSKA-NADACHOWSKA1, Tatyana V. KARAMYSHEVA2, Dragan P. CHOBANOV3, Klaus-Gerhard HELLER4
1 Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland; e-mails: warchalowska@isez.pan.krakow.pl; grzywacz@isez.pan.krakow.pl; maryanska@isez.pan.krakow.pl
2 Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia; e-mail: kary@bionet.nsc.ru
3 Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences , Tsar Osvoboditel 1, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria; e-mail: dchobanov@gmail.com
4 Grillenstieg 18, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany; e-mail: Heller.volleth@T-Online.de

Chromosomes of six European species (one with two subspecies) of Orthoptera belonging to the tribes Ephippigerini and Bradyporini were analyzed using C-banding, Ag-NOR, DAPI (AT-rich)/CMA3 (GC-rich) staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the 18S rDNA and (TTAGG)n telomeric probes with the aim to better understand chromosomal organization and evolutionary relationships between genera and subgenera within and across both tribes. The evolution of karyotypes was studied in terms of changes in chromosome number (2n) and morphology (FN, the fundamental number - i.e. the number of chromosome arms including the X chromosome). The ancestral 2n = 31 was reduced to 2n = 29 (FN = 31) and 27 (FN = 31) by one or two Robertsonian fusions in the Ephippigerini. Whereas in the Bradyporini 2n = 27 (FN = 32) as a result of two Robertsonian translocations and a pericentric inversion in the X chromosome. The quantity of heterochromatin in GC-rich regions distinguished the karyotypes of Ephippigerini (only a single CG-rich band on one autosome pair) from those of Bradyporini (CG-rich bands on all chromosomes). FISH using the 18S rDNA probe localized 1-3 rDNA clusters to autosomes and/or to the X chromosome in all species examined. The rDNA loci coincided with active NORs as determined by Ag-NOR staining. A comparison of the location of the single NOR/rDNA in two species of the genus Steropleurus (Ephippigerini) suggests that the reduced chromosome number in S. pseudolus results from a Robertsonian fusion between two pairs of autosomes, one of them carrying the NOR/rDNA as in S. stalii (and also in E. ephippiger). Whereas the karyotypes of three species of the genus Bradyporus, though showing the same chromosome number and morphology, differed in the number and distribution of NORs/rDNA sites [one autosomal in B. (B.) dasypus versus three in B. macrogaster and B. (C.) oniscus, two of them X-linked]. Trends in karyotype diversification of the taxa based on the present data and previous research are discussed. In some individuals belonging to the species Bradyporus (B.) dasypus and B. (C.) m. macrogaster B chromosomes (Bs) were detected: acrocentric (the smallest elements in the complement) and submetacentric (similar to medium-sized autosomes), respectively.

Keywords: Orthoptera, Ephippigerini, Bradyporini, karyotype evolution, chromosome fusion, B chromosomes, FISH, rDNA

Received: June 13, 2012; Accepted: August 8, 2012; Published: January 2, 2013

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