Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 373-379, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.048

Role of leaf mines in host location and pupation in Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

De Yu ZOU1,2, Hong Yin CHEN*,1,2, Li Sheng ZHANG1,2
1 Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Haidian, Beijing 100081, China
2 Sino-American Biological Control Laboratory (SABCL), USDA-ARS, 12 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Haidian, Beijing 100081, China; e-mails: deyuzou@gmail.com; chen.hongyin@gmail.com; zhangleesheng@163.com

Diglyphus isaea Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an important ectoparasitic wasp of many leaf miners. Ability of D. isaea to find hosts placed in artificial mines and for its larvae to pupate when the larva is not in a mine was studied. Artificial mines consisted of slits cut in index card sandwiched between two cover slips. Almost 80% of the neonate larvae of D. isaea located host larvae in artificial mines compared to only 50% of those not in a mine. Mature larvae removed from mines did not construct normal pupal chambers. Nonetheless, they pupated and emerged successfully. Larvae of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in mines are more likely to be attacked than those not in mines. Moreover, when close to a host larva this parasitoid can use vibrational cues to locate the larva in a mine. In addition, this parasitoid also did not always use volatile and gustatory cues for short range location of hosts. However, adult females of D. isaea more quickly located L. sativae larvae in the presence of the odour of juice extracted from an uninfested host plant. We conclude by proposing that the host mine is the medium by which the vibrations generated by the host larva are transmitted, which are probably the most important cue used by female D. isaea searching for hosts. That is this parasitoid first perceives mines not host larvae. These results will be helpful for developing techniques for the mass rearing of D. isaea in the future.

Keywords: Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Diglyphus isaea, Diptera, Agromyzidae, Liriomyza sativae, leaf miner, artificial mine, host searching ability, pupation

Received: August 19, 2010; Accepted: February 15, 2012; Published: July 2, 2012

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