Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 217-227, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.028

Adult demography, spatial distribution and movements of Zerynthia polyxena (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in a dense network of permanent habitats

Tatjana ČELIK
Jovan Hadži Institute of Biology, Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Novi trg 2, P.O. Box 306, SI-1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia; e-mail: tcelik@zrc-sazu.si

The adult demographic parameters, mobility, nectar choice and how the spatial distribution of males and females of Z. polyxena is affected by the distribution and abundance of host-plants, and adults of the opposite sex was studied in a population of this species inhabiting a dense network of permanent habitats (totalling 8.7 ha). The population size was estimated to be ca. 300 individuals. The average adult lifespan was 4.4 days and the maximum 23 (male) and 20 (female) days. The capture probability was higher for males than females due to the more conspicuous behaviour and bounded area of activity of males. A slow increase was followed by a slow decrease in the sex specific parabolic recruitment curve, indicating slight protandry and long emergence period, probably due to habitat heterogeneity. The spatial distribution of host plants (Aristolochia lutea) is the key factor determining the spatial distribution of adults. There was a strong positive correlation between male and female density at each patch, both of which were dependent on the cover of host plants growing in sunny conditions. In searching for A. lutea plants suitable for oviposition, females fly greater distances and move more frequently between patches than males. The size, shape and orientation of the male home range were influenced by the size, shape and orientation of stands of host-plants in sunny positions, but not by patch area. Such adult fidelity to stands of host-plants in sunny positions indicates that the spatial distributions of oviposition sites, mate-locating sites and larval habitats of Z. polyxena overlap. The better statistical fit and much lower probabilities for long-distance movements generated by a negative exponential function than an inverse power function are probably due to the small size and high habitat connectivity of the site studied. Adults were opportunistic in their use of nectar plants. Traditional management is the key factor for maintaining permanent habitats for this species in a grassland biotope.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Papilionidae, Zerynthia polyxena, Southern Festoon, mark-release-recapture, demography, resource distribution, movement, home range, butterfly conservation

Received: June 9, 2011; Accepted: December 21, 2011; Published: April 5, 2012

Download citation

References

  1. AUCKLAND J.N., DEBINSKI D.M. & CLARK W.R. 2004: Survival, movement, and resource use of the butterfly Parnassius clodius. Ecol. Entomol. 29: 139-149 Go to original source...
  2. BAGUETTE M. 2003: Long distance dispersal and landscape occupancy in a metapopulation of the cranberry fritillary butterfly. Ecography 26: 153-160 Go to original source...
  3. BAGUETTE M. & SCHTICKZELLE N. 2003: Local population dynamics are important to conservation of metapopulations in highly fragmented landscape. J. Appl. Ecol. 40: 404-412 Go to original source...
  4. BAUMANN E. 1981: Erfolgreiche Wiedereinbuergerung von Zerynthia polyxena auf einem ehemaligen Weinberg am Stadtrand von Graz. Beih. VerGff. Natursch. Landschaftspfl. Bad.-Wuertt. 21: 177-179
  5. BATARY P., ORVOSSY N., KOROSI A. & PEREGOVITS L. 2008: Egg distribution of the southern festoon (Zerynthia polyxena) (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 54: 401-410
  6. BEER S. 1946: Ricerche sulla biologia di Zerynthia hypsipyle Schulze. Mem. Soc. Entomol. It. 25: 34-73
  7. BERGMAN K.O. & LANDIN J. 2002: Population structure and movements of threatened butterfly (Lopinga achine) in a fragmented landscape in Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 108: 361-369 Go to original source...
  8. BROMMER J.E. & FRED M.S. 1999: Movement of the Apollo butterfly Parnassius apollo related to host plant and nectar plant patches. Ecol. Entomol. 24: 125-131 Go to original source...
  9. BRUCKMAN S.V., KRAUSS J., VAN ACHTERBERG C. & STEFFANDEWENTER I. 2011: The impact of habitat fragmentation on trophic interactions of the monophagous butterfly Polyommatus coridon. J. Insect Conserv. 15: 707-714 Go to original source...
  10. BURNHAM K.P. & ANDERSON D.R. 2002: Model Selection and Multimodel Inference. A Practical Information - Theoretic Approach. Springer, New York, 488 pp
  11. COOCH E. & WHITE G. 2008: Program MARK. "A Gentle Introduction", 7th ed. http://www.phidot.org/software/mark/docs/book
  12. COOK L.M., BROWER L.P. & CROZE H.J. 1967: The accuracy of a population estimation from multiple recapture data. J. Anim. Ecol. 36: 57-60 Go to original source...
  13. CELIK T. 2004: Diverziteta dnevnih metuljev (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) v Regijskem parku Skocjanske jame. [Diversity of butterfly fauna (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in the Skocjanske jame Regional park. Acta Biol. Sloven. 47: 95-111 [in Slovene]
  14. CELIK T. 2010a: Conservation assessment of the butterfly fauna along the River Sava between Krsko and the state border. Acta Biol. Sloven. 53: 71-97
  15. CELIK T. 2010b: An inventory of butterfly fauna and habitats along the River Sava between Litija and Zidani most. In Govedic M., Grobelnik V. & Lesnik A. (eds): An Inventory of Animal and Plant Species and Habitat Types with Regard to the Species of Community Interest, Ecologically Important Areas and Protected Areas along the River Sava between Hydroelectric Power Station Medvode and Hydroelectric Power Station Vrhovo. Center za kartografijo favne in flore, Miklavz na Dravskem polju, pp. 211-292 [in Slovene]
  16. DAPPORTO L. 2010: Speciation in Mediterranean refugia and post-glacial expansion of Zerynthia polyxena (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 48: 229-237 Go to original source...
  17. DENNIS R.L.H. 2003: Towards a functional resource-based concept for habitat: a butterfly biology viewpoint. Oikos 102: 417-426
  18. FRIC Z., HULA V., KLIMOVA M., ZIMMERMANN K. & KONVICKA M. 2010: Dispersal of four fritillary butterflies within identical landscape. Ecol. Res. 25: 543-552 Go to original source...
  19. HABELER H. 1986: Zur Kenntnis der Lebensraeume des Osterluzeifalters, Zerynthia polyxena (Denis & Schiffermuller, 1775). Mitt. Abt. Zool. Landesmus. Joanneum 39: 221-223
  20. HADDAD N.M. 1999: Corridor and distance effects on interpatch movements: a landscape experiment with butterflies. Ecol. Appl. 9: 612-622 Go to original source...
  21. HANSKI I.A. & GILPIN M.E. 1997: Metapopulation Biology. Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution. Academic Press, San Diego, 512 pp
  22. HANSKI I., BREUKER C.J., SCHOPS K., SETCHFIELD R. & NIEMINEN M. 2002: Population history and life history influence the migration rate of female Glanville fritillary butterflies. Oikos 98: 87-97 Go to original source...
  23. HESSELBARTH G., VAN OORSCHOT H. & WAGENER S. 1995: Die Tagfalter der Tuerkei. Band I. Selbstverlag Sigbert Wagener, Bocholt, 754 pp
  24. HILL J.K., THOMAS C.D. & LEWIS O.T. 1996: Effects of habitat patch size and isolation on dispersal by Hesperia comma butterflies: implications for metapopulation structure. J. Anim. Ecol. 65: 725-735 Go to original source...
  25. HOTTINGER H. 2003: Neue Erkenntnisse zu Verbreitung, Okologie und Gefaehrdung des Osterluzeifalters Zerynthia polyxena (Denis & Schiffermueller, 1775) in Osterreich mit besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Burgenlandes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Beitr. Entomofaun. 4: 89-105
  26. IDE J. 2010: Weather factors affecting the male mate-locating tactics of the small copper butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 107: 369-376 Go to original source...
  27. JANZ N., BERGSTROM A. & JOHANSSON J. 2005: Frequency dependence of host plant choice within and between patches: a large cage experiment. Evol. Ecol. 19: 289-302 Go to original source...
  28. JUNKER M. & SCHMITT T. 2010: Demography, dispersal and movement pattern of Euphydryas aurinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) at the Iberian Peninsula: an alarming example in an increasingly fragmented landscape? J. Insect Conserv. 14: 237-246 Go to original source...
  29. KONVICKA M. 2002: Pestrokridlec podrazcovy (Zerynthia polyxena). In Benes J. & Konvicka M. (eds): [Butterflies of the Czeck Republic: Distribution and Conservation I.] SOM, Prague, pp. 156-158
  30. KRAUSS J., STEFFAN-DEWENTER I., MULLER B. & TSCHARNTKE T. 2005: Relative importance of resource quantity, isolation and habitat quality for lanscape distribution of monophagous butterfly. Ecography 28: 465-474 Go to original source...
  31. KURAS T., BENES J., FRIC Z. & KONVICKA M. 2003: Dispersal patterns of endmic alpine butterflies with contrasting population structures: Erebia epiphron and E. sudetica. Popul. Ecol. 45: 115-123 Go to original source...
  32. LEBRETON J.D., BURNHAM K.P., CLOBERT J. & ANDERSON D.R. 1992: Modelling survival and testing biological hypotheses using marked animals - a unified approach with case studies. Ecol. Monogr. 62: 67-118 Go to original source...
  33. LOERTSCHER M., ERHARDT A. & ZETTEL J. 1995: Microdistribution of butterflies in a mosaic-like habitat. The role of nectar sources. Ecography 18: 15-26 Go to original source...
  34. LUOTO M., KUUSSAARI M., SALMINEN J. & VON BONSDORFF T. 2001: Determinants of distribution and abundance in the clouded apollo butterfly: a landscape ecological approach. Ecography 24: 601-617 Go to original source...
  35. MENNENCHEZ G., SCHTICKZELLE N. & BAGUETTE M. 2003: Metapopulation dynamics of the bog frittilary butterfly: comparison of demographic parameters and dispersal between a continuous and highly fragmented landscape. Landscape Ecol. 18: 279-291 Go to original source...
  36. MERCKX T. & VAN DYCK H. 2005: Mate location behaviour of the butterfly Pararge aegeria in woodland and fragmented landscapes. Anim. Behav. 70: 411-416 Go to original source...
  37. NAZARI V. & CARBONELL F. 2006: Zerynthia polyxena (Denis and Schiffermueller, 1775). Version 07 July 2006 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Zerynthia_polyxena
  38. NOWICKI P., WITEK M., SKORKA P., SETTELE J. & WOYCIECHOWSKI M. 2005: Population ecology of the endangered butterflies Maculinea teleius and M. nausithous and the implications for conservation. Popul. Ecol. 47: 193-202 Go to original source...
  39. OHSAKI N. & SATO Y. 1990: Avoidance mechanisms of three Pieris butterfly species against the parasitoid wasp Apanteles glomerulus. Ecol. Entomol. 15: 169-176 Go to original source...
  40. OVASKINEN O., SMITH A.D., OSBORNE J.L., REYNOLDS D.R., CARRECK N.L., MARTIN A.P., NIITEPOLD K. & HANSKI I. 2008: Tracking butterfly movements with harmonic radar reveals an effect of population age on movement distance. PNAS 108: 19090-19095 Go to original source...
  41. PRYKE S.R. & SAMWAYS M.J. 2001: Width of grassland linkages for the conservation of butterflies in South African afforested areas. Biol. Conserv. 101: 85-96 Go to original source...
  42. PUISSAUVE R. 2009: La Diane Zerynthia polyxena Denis and Schiffermueller, 1775 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) et son habitat dans la plaine de Pompignan (France, Gard): Definition d'un protocole d'etude standardise. Rapport de stage de Master 1 en Ingenierie en Ecologie et en Gestion de la Biodiversite, Universite Montpellier, 62 pp
  43. RANDOLPH S.E. 1977: Changing spatial relationships in a population of Apodemus sylvaticus with the onset of breeding. J. Anim. Ecol. 46: 653-676 Go to original source...
  44. ROSLIN T. 2000: Dung beetle movements at two spatial scales. Oikos 91: 323-335 Go to original source...
  45. SCHNEIDER C. 2003: The influence of spatial scale on quantifying insect dispersal: an analysis of butterfly data. Ecol. Entomol. 28: 252-256 Go to original source...
  46. SCHNEIDER C., DOVER J. & FRY G.L.A. 2003: Movement of two grassland butterflies in the same habitat network: the role of adult resources and size of the study area. Ecol. Entomol. 28: 219-227 Go to original source...
  47. SCHTICKZELLE N., BOULENGE E.L. & BAGUETTE M. 2002: Metapopulation dynamics of the bog fritillary butterfly: demographic processes in a patchy population. Oikos 97: 349-360 Go to original source...
  48. SCHTICKZELLE N., BAGUETTE M. & LE BOULENGE E. 2003: Modelling insect demography from capture-recapture data: comparison between the constrained linear models and the JollySeber analytical method. Can. Entomol. 135: 313-323 Go to original source...
  49. SCHTICKZELLE N., MENNECHEZ G. & BAGUETTE M. 2006: Dispersal depression with habitat fragmentation in the bog fritillary butterfly. Ecology 87: 1057-1065 Go to original source...
  50. SCOTT J.A. 1975: Flight patterns among eleven species of diurnal Lepidoptera. Ecology 56: 1367-1377 Go to original source...
  51. SPSS INC. 1989- 2004: SPSS for Windows. Release 13.0 (1 Sep 2004).
  52. STEFANESCU C. & TRAVESET A. 2009: Factors influencing the degree of generalization in flower use by Mediterranean butterflies. Oikos 118: 1109-1117 Go to original source...
  53. STEVENS V.M., TURLURE C. & BAGUETTE M. 2010: A metaanalysis of dispersal in butterflies. Biol. Rev. 85: 625-642 Go to original source...
  54. SPILJAR A. 2007: Ekoloske raziskave populacije ogrozene vrste metulja petelincka Zerynthia polyxena (Denis & Schiffermueller, 1775) (Lepidoptera) na obmocju Konjisca ob Muri. [Ecological Researches of Threatened Butterfly Zerynthia polyxena (Denis & Schiffermueller, 1775) (Lepidoptera) at Konjisce on River Mura.] Thesis, Maribor University, 70 pp. [in Slovene]
  55. TOLMAN T. & LEWINGTON R. 1997: Butterflies of Britain and Europe. Harper Collins, London, 320 pp
  56. TURLURE C. & VAN DYCK H. 2009: On the consequences of aggressive male mate-locating behaviour and micro-climate for female host plant use in the butterfly Lycaena hippothoe. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 63: 1581-1591 Go to original source...
  57. UCLA ATS 2007: Statistical Computing. UCLA: Academic Technology Services, Statistical Consulting Group. http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/topics/regression.htm
  58. VAN HELSDINGEN P.J., WILLEMSE L. & SPEIGHT M.C.D. 1996: Background Information on Inverterbrates of the Habitats Directive and the Bern Convention. Nature and Environment No. 79. Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 217 pp
  59. VAN SWAAY C.A.M., WARREN M.S. & LOIS G. 2006: Biotope use and trends of European butterflies. J. Insect Conserv. 10: 189-209 Go to original source...
  60. VAN SWAAY C.A.M, CUTTELOD A., COLLINS S., MAES D., MUNGUIRA LOPEZ M., SASIC M., SETTELE J., VEROVNIK R., VERSTRAEL T., WARREN M., WIEMERS M. & WYNHOF I. 2010: European Red List of Butterfies. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 46 pp
  61. VAN SWAAY C.A.M., MAES D., COLLINS S., MUNGUIRA LOPEZ M., SASIC M., SETTELE J., VEROVNIK R., WARREN M., WIEMERS M., WYNHOF I. & CUTTELOD A. 2011: Applying IUCN criteria to invertebrates: How red is the Red List of European butterflies? Biol. Conserv. 144: 470-478 Go to original source...
  62. VANDEWOESTIJNE S. & BAGUETTE M. 2004: Genetic population structure of the vulnerable bog fritillary butterfly. Hereditas 141: 199-206 Go to original source...
  63. VANDEWOESTIJNE S., MARTIN T., LIEGEOIS S. & BAGUETTE M. 2004: Dispersal, landscape occupancy and population structure in the butterfly Melanargia galathea. Basic Appl. Ecol. 5: 581-591 Go to original source...
  64. VEROVNIK R., CELIK T., GROBELNIK V., SALAMUN A., SECEN T. & GOVEDIC M. 2009: Vzpostavitev monitoringa izbranih ciljnih vrst metuljev (Lepidoptera). [Monitoring of Selected Lepidoptera Species in Slovenia.] University of Ljubljana, 150 pp. [in Slovene]
  65. WANG R., OVASKINEN O., CAO Y., CHEN H., ZHOU Y., XU C. & HANSKI I. 2011: Dispersal in the Glanville fritillary butterfly in fragmented versus continuous landscapes: comparison between three methods. Ecol. Entomol. 36: 251-260 Go to original source...
  66. WEIDEMANN H.J. 1995: Tagfalter: beobachten, bestimmen. 2. Naturbuch Verlag, Augsburg, 659 pp
  67. WHITE G. 2008: Program MARK. Version 5.1. http//www.cnr.colostate.edu/~gwhite
  68. WIENS J.A. 2001: The landscape context of dispersal. In Clobert J., Danchin E., Dhondt A.A. & Nichols J.D. (eds): Dispersal. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 96-109
  69. ZIMMERMANN K., BLAzKOVA P., CIzEK O., FRIC Z., HULA V., KEPKA P., NOVOTNY D., SLAMOVA I. & KONVICKA M. 2011a: Demography of adults of the Marsh fritillary butterfly, Euphydryas aurinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Czech Republic: Patterns across sites and seasons. Eur. J. Entomol. 108: 243-254 Go to original source...
  70. ZIMMERMANN K., FRIC Z., JISKRA P., KOPECKOVA M., VLASANEK P., ZAPLETAL M. & KONVICKA M. 2011b: Mark-recapture on large spatial scale reveals long distance dispersal in the Marsh Fritillary, Euphydryas aurinia. Ecol. Entomol. 36: 499-510 Go to original source...