Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 103-109, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.013

Changes in the calling behaviour of female Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as a function of body weight and adult feeding

Medhat M. SADEK
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt; e-mail: m.sadek@aun.edu.eg

Because nutrients accrued during larval stages represent the major limiting factor for egg production, the use of adult feeding to enhance the reproductive output in moths is considered to be largely weight-dependent. It is hypothesized, however, that feeding by adults could be adaptive and an effective means of increasing their reproductive success. In order to test this, the calling behaviour of Spodoptera littoralis females that differed in body weight and whether they had fed or not were recorded. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, the calling behaviour of food-deprived females of different body weights was recorded. A strong positive correlation was found between body weight at emergence and the total duration of calling of females on the second to the fifth night after emergence. In the second experiment, groups of female moths that varied in body weight were given access to water or sucrose. Feeding on sucrose significantly reduced the pre-calling period and increased the total time spent calling on the six nights after emergence. The increase in time spent calling associated with ingesting sucrose were proportionately similar for both small and large females, implying that feeding by adults can result in an increase in the time spent calling by moths irrespective of larval nutritional status. Female longevity was also correlated with moth weight at emergence and/or sucrose availability. It is concluded that it is advantageous for female S. littoralis to be large and/or have access to sucrose-rich food in the adult stage as they can spend more time attracting a mate, which increases their chances of mating in early adult life, and their longer adult life may indirectly result in an increase in fecundity.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Spodoptera littoralis, body weight, calling behaviour, adult food

Received: August 19, 2011; Accepted: October 4, 2011; Published: January 3, 2012

Download citation

References

  1. ALBERTS A.C. 1992: Constraints on the design of chemical communication systems in terrestrial vertebrates. Am. Nat. 139: S62-S89 Go to original source...
  2. ALLISON J.D. & CARDE R.T. 2006: Heritable variation in the sex pheromone of the almond moth, Cadra cautella. J. Chem. Ecol. 32: 621-641 Go to original source...
  3. ALLISON J.D. & CARDE R.T. 2008: Male pheromone blend preference function measured in choice and no-choice wind tunnel trials with almond moths, Cadra cautella. Anim. Behav. 75: 259-266 Go to original source...
  4. AMBROGI B.G., FONSECA M.G., CORACINI M.D.A. & ZARBIN P.H.G. 2009: Calling behaviour and male response towards sex pheromone of poplar moth Condylorrhiza vestigialis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J. Pest Sci. 82: 55-60 Go to original source...
  5. ATANASSOV A. & SHEARER P.W. 2005: Peach extrafloral nectar impacts life span and reproduction of adult Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Agric. Urban Entomol. 22: 41-47
  6. BROWN E.S. & DEWHURST C.F. 1975: The genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Africa and the Near East. Bull. Entomol. Res. 65: 221-262 Go to original source...
  7. CARDE R.T. & BAKER T.C. 1984: Sexual communication with pheromones. In Bell W.J. & Carde R.T. (eds): Chemical Ecology of Insects. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 355-383
  8. CARROLL A.L. & QUIRING D.T. 1993: Interactions between size and temperature influence fecundity and longevity of a tortricid moth, Zeiraphera Canadensis. Oecologia 93: 233-241 Go to original source...
  9. CASIMERO V., NAKASUJI F. & FUJISAKI K. 2001: The influences of larval and adult food quality on the calling rate and precalling period of females of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 36: 33-40 Go to original source...
  10. DELISLE J. & VINCENT C. 2002: Modified pheromone communication associated with insecticidal resistance in the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Chemoecology 12: 47-51 Go to original source...
  11. ELLIS P.E. & STEELE G. 1982: The effects of delayed mating on fecundity of females of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 72: 295-302 Go to original source...
  12. FADAMIRO H.Y. & BAKER T.C. 1999: Reproductive performance and longevity of female European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis: Effects of multiple mating, delay in mating, and adult feeding. J. Insect Physiol. 45: 385-392 Go to original source...
  13. FOSTER S.P. 2005: Lipid analysis of the sex pheromone gland of the moth Heliothis virescens. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 59: 80-90 Go to original source...
  14. FOSTER S.P. 2009: Sugar feeding via trehalose haemolymph concentration affects sex pheromone production in mated Heliothis virescens moths. J. Exp. Biol. 212: 2789-2794 Go to original source...
  15. FOSTER S.P. & JOHNSON C.P. 2010: Feeding and hemolymph trehalose concentration influence sex pheromone production in virgin Heliothis virescens moths. J. Insect Physiol. 56: 1617-1623 Go to original source...
  16. GEMENO C. & HAYNES K.F. 2000: Periodical and age related variation in chemical communication system of black cutworm moth, Agrotis ipsilon. J. Chem. Ecol. 26: 329-342 Go to original source...
  17. GOMEZ V.R.C. & ROJAS J.C. 2006: Calling behavior of Zamagiria dixolophella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Florida Entomol. 89: 83-84 Go to original source...
  18. GU H. & DANTHANARAYANA W. 1990: The role of availability of food and water to the adult Epiphyas postvittana, the light brown apple moth, in its reproductive performance. Entomol. Exp. App. 54: 101-108 Go to original source...
  19. GUNN A. & GATEHOUSE A.G. 1985: Effects of the availability of food and water on reproduction in the African armyworm, Spodoptera exempta. Physiol. Entomol. 10: 53-63 Go to original source...
  20. HARARI A.R., ZAHAVI T. & THIERY D. 2011: Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths. Evolution 65: 1572-1582 Go to original source...
  21. HONEK A. 1993: Intraspecific variation in body size and fecundity in insects: a general relationship. Oikos 66: 483-492 Go to original source...
  22. HUANG C.B., LI W.G. & FU W.J. 1992: The release rate and component ratio of sex pheromone in pink bollworm of different seasonal generations. Acta Entomol. Sin. 35: 279-284
  23. JAFFE K., MIRAS B. & CABRERA A. 2007: Mate selection in the moth Neoleucinodes elegantalis: evidence for a supernormal chemical stimulus in sexual attraction. Anim. Behav. 73: 727-734 Go to original source...
  24. JAVOIS J. & TAMMARU T. 2004: Reproductive decisions are sensitive to cues of life expectancy: the case of a moth. Anim. Behav. 68: 249-255 Go to original source...
  25. JONES V.P., WIMAN N.G. & BRUNNER J.F. 2008: Comparison of delayed female mating on reproductive biology of codling moth and oblique banded leafroller. Environ. Entomol. 37: 679-685 Go to original source...
  26. LAMUNYON C.W. 1997: Increased fecundity, as a function of multiple mating, in an arctiid moth, Utetheisa ornatrix. Ecol. Entomol. 22: 69-73 Go to original source...
  27. LEAHY T.C. & ANDOW D.A. 1994: Egg weight, fecundity, and longevity are increased by adult feeding in Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 87: 342-349 Go to original source...
  28. LIM H., PARK K.C., BAKER T.C. & GREENFIELD M.D. 2007: Perception of conspecific female pheromone stimulates female calling in an arctiid moth, Utetheisa ornatrix. J. Chem. Ecol. 33: 1257-1271 Go to original source...
  29. LIU Z.D., LI D.M., GONG P.Y. & WU K.J. 2004: Life table studies of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Huebner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on different host plants. Environ. Entomol. 33: 1570-1576 Go to original source...
  30. LJUNGBERG H., ANDERSON P. & HANSSON B.S. 1993: Physiology and morphology of pheromone-specific sensilla on the antennae of male and female Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Insect Physiol. 39: 253-260 Go to original source...
  31. LOFSTEDT C. 1993: Moth pheromone genetics and evolution. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. (B) 340: 167-177 Go to original source...
  32. MCNAMARA K.B., ELGAR M.A. & JONES T.M. 2008: Seminal compounds, female receptivity and fitness in the almond moth, Cadra cautella. Anim. Behav. 76: 771-777 Go to original source...
  33. MCNAMARA K.B., ELGAR M.A. & JONES T.M. 2009: Large spermatophores reduce female receptivity and increase male paternity success in the almond moth, Cadra cautella. Anim. Behav. 77: 931-936. Go to original source...
  34. MCNEIL J.N. 1991: Behavioral ecology of pheromone-mediated communication in moths and its importance in the use of pheromone traps. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 36: 407-430 Go to original source...
  35. MOZURAITIS R. & BUDA V. 2006: Pheromone release behaviour in females of Phyllonorycter junoniella (Z.) (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) under constant and cycling temperatures. J. Insect Behav. 19: 129-142 Go to original source...
  36. O'BRIEN D.M., SCHRAG D.P. & RIO C.M.D. 2000: Allocation to reproduction in a hawkmoth: a quantitative analysis using stable carbon isotopes. Ecology 81: 2822-2831 Go to original source...
  37. O'BRIEN D.M., FOGEL M.L. & BOGGS C.L. 2002: Renewable and nonrenewable resources: Amino acid turnover and allocation to reproduction in Lepidoptera. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 4413-4418 Go to original source...
  38. RAMASWAMY S.B., SHU S., PARK Y.I. & ZENG F. 1997: Dynamics of juvenile hormone-mediated gonadotropism in the Lepidoptera. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 35: 539-558 Go to original source...
  39. REAVEY D. 1993: Why body size matters to caterpillars. In Stamp N.E. & Casey T.M. (eds): Caterpillars - Ecological and Evolutionary Constraints on Foraging. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 249-279
  40. RYNE C., NILSSON P.A. & SIVA-JOTHY M.T. 2004: Dietary glycerol and adult access to water: effects on fecundity and longevity in the almond moth. J. Insect Physiol. 50: 429-434 Go to original source...
  41. SADEK M.M. 2001: Polyandry in field-collected Spodoptera littoralis moths and laboratory assessment of the effects of male mating history. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 98: 165-172 Go to original source...
  42. SADEK M.M. 2011: Complementary behaviors of maternal and offspring Spodoptera littoralis: Oviposition site selection and larval movement together maximize performance. J. Insect Behav. 24: 67-82 Go to original source...
  43. SADEK M.M. & ANDERSON P. 2007: Modulation of reproductive behavior of Spodoptera littoralis by host and non-host plant leaves. Basic Appl. Ecol. 8: 444-452 Go to original source...
  44. SADEK M.M., HANSSON B.S., ROSPARS J.-P. & ANTON S. 2002: Glomerular representation of plant volatiles and sex pheromone components in the antennal lobe of the female Spodoptera littoralis. J. Exp. Biol. 205: 1363-1376
  45. SALAMA H.S. & SHOUKRY A. 1972: Flight range of the moth of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Bois). Z. Angew. Entomol. 71: 181-184 Go to original source...
  46. SOKAL R.R. & ROHLF F.J. 1981: Biometry. The Principles and Practique of Statistics in Biological Research. 2nd edn. W.H. Freeman, New York, 859 pp
  47. SPURGEON D.W., LINGREN P.D., RAULSTON J.R. & SHAVER T.N. 1995: Age-specific mating activities of Mixican rice borers (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environ. Entomol. 24: 105-109 Go to original source...
  48. SVENSSON M.G.E., BENGTSSON M. & LOFQVIST J. 1997: Individual variation and repeatability of sex pheromone emission of female turnip moth Agrotis segetum. J. Chem. Ecol. 23: 1833-1850 Go to original source...
  49. TAMMARU T., ESPERK T. & CASTELLANOS I. 2002: No evidence for costs of being large in females of Orgyia spp. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae): larger is always better. Oecologia 133: 430-438 Go to original source...
  50. TENG Z.Q. & ZHANG Q.W. 2009: Determinants of male ejaculate investment in the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera: mating history, female body size and male age. Physiol. Entomol. 34: 338-344 Go to original source...
  51. THIERY D. & MOREAU J. 2005: Relative performance of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) on grapes and other hosts. Oecologia 143: 548-557 Go to original source...
  52. TILLMAN J.A., SEYBOLD S.J., JURENKA R.A. & BLOMQUIST G.J. 1999: Insect pheromones - an overview of biosynthesis and endocrine regulation. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 29: 481-514 Go to original source...
  53. TORRES-VILA L.M., STOCKEL J. & RODRIGUEZ-MOLINA M.C. 1997: Physiological factors regulating polyandry in Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Physiol. Entomol. 22: 387-393 Go to original source...
  54. TORRES-VILA L.M., RODRIGUEZ-MOLINA M.C., MCMINN M. & RODRIGUEZ-MOLINA A. 2005: Larval food source promotes cyclic seasonal variation in polyandry in the moth Lobesia botrana. Behav. Ecol. 16: 114-122 Go to original source...
  55. WHEELER D. 1996: The role of nourishment in oogenesis. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 41: 407-431 Go to original source...
  56. XU J. & WANG Q. 2009: Male moths undertake both pre- and incopulation mate choice based on female age and weight. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 63: 801-808 Go to original source...