Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 509-517, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.066

Comparative analysis of the location of rDNA in the Palaearctic bushcricket genus Isophya (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae)

Beata GRZYWACZ1, Anna MARYAŃSKA-NADACHOWSKA1, Dragan P. CHOBANOV2, Tatjana KARAMYSHEVA3, Elżbieta WARCHAŁOWSKA-ŚLIWA1
1 Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland; e-mail: grzywacz@isez.pan.krakow.pl
2 Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
3 Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia

The present study focused on the evolution of the karyotype in 21 taxa of the genus Isophya, which was done by mapping the location on the chromosomes of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) coding genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with an 18S rDNA probe and using silver staining (AgNO3) to evaluate the activity of major rDNA clusters. Since the chromosome number and sex determination do not vary in this genus, the above markers were used in a detailed comparison of the cytogenetic features of species of Isophya. The species analyzed were placed into three groups based on the location of rDNA on their chromosomes: (1) rDNA-FISH signals only on the two long pairs of autosomes, (2) rDNA-FISH signals on one long and one short pair of autosomes, and (3) rDNA-FISH signals on three to five different sized pairs of autosomes. These groupings partly correspond to the morphological groupings proposed in earlier studies. One long pair of autosomes frequently carried rDNA in all the Isophya species and probably is a plesiomorphic character for these taxa. The cytogenetic mapping revealed great variability among Isophya species in the chromosomal location of major rDNA clusters. Our results suggest that the observed variation in the number of rDNA clusters can be an important species-group specific phylogenetic marker. Analysis of 18S rDNA hybridization signals showed that the evolutionary dynamics of rDNA in this genus is remarkably high and accompanied by changes in the structure of chromosomes bearing rDNA at an inter- and intra-specific level. The telomeric sequence (TTAGG)n hybridized with the termini of most of chromosomes, however, some chromosome ends lacked signals probably due to a low copy number of telomeric repeats.

Keywords: Orthoptera, FISH, Ag-NOR, rDNA, telomeric repeats

Received: March 15, 2011; Accepted: June 3, 2011; Published: October 3, 2011

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