Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 153-159, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.018

Diaspidid (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) size plasticity as an adaptive life history trait

M. Garry HILL1, Rosa C. HENDERSON2, Nicola A. MAUCHLINE1
1 The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Te Puke Research Centre, 412 No .1 Rd, Te Puke 3182, New Zealand; e-mail: Garry.Hill@plantandfood.co.nz
2 Landcare Research Ltd, Private Bag 92170, Auckland Mail Centre, Auckland 1142, New Zealand

The size and fecundity of Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on partially resistant and susceptible kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) varieties was measured. The size ratio of mature H. lataniae grown on a partially resistant genotype, compared with those on a susceptible genotype, was 0.67-0.51 for 2nd instar exuviae area, 0.32 for adult body area and 0.18 for estimated body volume. The fertility ratio was 0.1, but the pre-oviposition period and the size of the crawlers were the same. Diaspidid scale insects' unusual ability to continue growing after the final moult appears to be a key feature allowing these insects to show extreme size plasticity while retaining the ability to reproduce even when very small. These observations challenge current theories of insect development that postulate the need to achieve a critical weight threshold before the final moult. We suggest that this strategy may have assisted the evolution of polyphagy within the Diaspididae.

Keywords: Life history, developmental biology, Diaspididae, fecundity, host plant resistance, polyphagy, plasticity

Received: July 15, 2010; Accepted: October 4, 2010; Published: January 3, 2011

Download citation

References

  1. ALSTAD D.N. 2002: Population structure and the conundrum of local adaptation. In Wagner M.R., Clancy K.M., Lieutier F. & Paine T.D. (eds): Mechanisms and Deployment of Resistance in Trees to Insects. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 3-21
  2. AWMACK C. & LEATHER S. 2002: Host plant quality and fecundity in herbivorous insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 47: 817-844 Go to original source...
  3. BEARDSLEY J.W. & GONZALES R.H. 1975: The biology and ecology of armoured scales. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 20: 47-73 Go to original source...
  4. BERNER D. & BLANCKENHORN W.U. 2007: An ontogenetic perspective on the relationship between age and size at maturity. Funct. Ecol. 21: 505-512 Go to original source...
  5. BLANK R., GILL G.S. & KELLY J.M. 2000: Development and mortality of greedy scale at constant temperatures. Environ. Entomol. 29: 934-942 Go to original source...
  6. FOLDI I. 1990a: Moulting and scale cover formation. In Rosen D. (ed.): Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 257-265
  7. FOLDI I. 1990b: The scale cover. In Rosen D. (ed.): Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 43-54
  8. GARCIA M.F. 1973: Contribution to the biological study of Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Diaspidinae). Revta Invest. Agropec. (5, Pat. Veg.) 10: 1-53
  9. GULLAN P.J. & KOSZTARAB M. 1997: Adaptations in scale insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42: 23-50 Go to original source...
  10. HANKS L.M. & DENNO R.F. 1994: Local adaptation in the armored scale insect Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Ecology 75: 2301-2310 Go to original source...
  11. HARE J.D., YU D.S. & LUCK R.F. 1990: Variation in life history parameters of California red scale on different citrus cultivars. Ecology 71: 1451-1460 Go to original source...
  12. HILL M.G. & HOLMES T. 2009: An analysis of latania scale (Hemiberlesia lataniae) settlement behaviour on kiwifruit leaves and bark. N. Z. Plant Prot. 62: 56-62
  13. HILL M.G., MAUCHLINE N., CATE L.R. & CONNOLLY P.G. 2005: A technique for measuring the growth rate of armoured scale insects. N. Z. Plant Prot. 58: 288-293
  14. HILL M.G., MAUCHLINE N., CHENG C.H. & CONNOLLY P.G. 2007: Measuring the resistance of Actinidia chinensis to armoured scale insects. Acta Hortic. 753: 685-692 Go to original source...
  15. HILL M.G., MAUCHLINE N.A., HALL A.J. & STANNARD K.A. 2009: Life table parameters for two armoured scale insect species on resistant and susceptible kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.) germplasm. N. Z. J. Crop Hortic. Sci. 37: 335-343 Go to original source...
  16. HILL M.G., MAUCHLINE N., CONNOLLY P.G. & MAHER B. 2010: Measuring resistance to armoured scale insects in kiwifruit (Actinidia) germplasm. N. Z. J. Crop Hortic. Sci. 38: 69-85 Go to original source...
  17. JERVIS M.A. & KIDD N. 1996: Insect Natural Enemies, Practical Approaches to their Study and Evaluation. Chapman and Hall, London, 491 pp
  18. KARACA I. 1998: Parasitization efficacy of Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) as affected by host size and size distribution of Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in a lemon orchard. Turkiye Entomol. Dergisi 22: 101-108
  19. KOSZTARAB M. 1987: Everything unique or unusual about scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidae). Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 33: 215-220 Go to original source...
  20. KOTEJA J. 1990: Life History. In Rosen D. (ed.): Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 243-254
  21. MCCLURE M.S. 1980: Foliar nitrogen: A basis for host suitability for elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Ecology 61: 72-79 Go to original source...
  22. MCCLURE M.S. 1983: Reproduction and adaptation of exotic hemlock scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on their new and native hosts. Environ. Entomol. 12: 1811-1815 Go to original source...
  23. MCCLURE M.S. 1990a: Habitats and hosts. In Rosen D. (ed.): Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 285-288
  24. MCCLURE M.S. 1990b: Influence of environmental factors. In Rosen D. (ed.): Armoured Scale Insect, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 319-330
  25. MCCLURE M.S. 1990c: Patterns of host specificity. In Rosen D. (ed.): Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 301-303
  26. MILLER D.R. & DAVIDSON J.A. 2005: Armoured Scale Insect Pests of Trees and Shrubs. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 442 pp
  27. MILLER D.R. & KOSZTARAB M. 1979: Recent advances in the study of scale insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 24: 1-27 Go to original source...
  28. MIZUTA T. 2003: Differences in development and reproduction of the mulberry scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on resistant and ssuceptible varieties of tea plant. Jap. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 47: 91-95 Go to original source...
  29. MIZUTA T. 2004: Mechanisms of Resistance of Tea to the Mulberry Scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona. PhD. Thesis, Tea Branch, Miyazaki Prefecture Agricultural Experiment Station, 85 pp
  30. MIZUTA T. 2005: Studies on the mechanism of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) resistance of tea plant and its practical use. Bull. Miyazaki Agr. Exp. Stat. 40: 1-54
  31. MORGAN D.J.W. & HARE J.D. 1997: Uncoupling physical and chemical cues: the independent roles of scale cover size and kairomone concentration on host selection by Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). J. Insect Behav. 10: 679-694 Go to original source...
  32. NIJHOUT H.F. 1984: Abdominal stretch reception in Dietalogaster maximus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). J. Insect Physiol. 30: 629-633 Go to original source...
  33. NIJHOUT H.F. 2003: The control of body size in insects. Dev. Biol. 261: 1-9 Go to original source...
  34. PROVENCHER L.M., MORSE G.E., WEEKS A.R. & NORMARK B.B. 2005: Parthenogenesis in the Aspidiotus nerii complex (Hemiptera: Diaspididae): a single origin of a worldwide, polyphagous lineage associated with Cardinium bacteria. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 98: 629-635 Go to original source...
  35. STERN D.L. 2003: Body size control: how an insect knows it has grown enough. Curr. Biol. 13: R267-269 Go to original source...
  36. TAKAGI M. 1990: Polymorphism. In Rosen D. (ed.): Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 59-64
  37. YU D.S. & LUCK R.F. 1988: Temperature-dependent size and development of California red scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and its effect on host availability for the ectoparasitoid, Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Environ. Entomol. 17: 154-161 Go to original source...
  38. VAN ZANDT P.A. & MOPPER S. 1998: A meta-analysis of adaptive deme formation in phytophagous insect populations. Am. Nat. 152: 595-604 Go to original source...