Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 631-645, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.072

Re-evaluation of the genus Phonochorion (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae)

Hasan SEVGILI1, Selim S. CAGLAR2, Ismail K. SAGLAM*,2
1 Ordu University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Biology, Cumhuriyet Campus, Ordu, Turkey; e-mail: hsevgili@gmail.com
2 Hacettepe University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Ecological Sciences Research Laboratories, 06800, Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey; e-mail: sualp@hacettepe.edu.tr

Phonochorion Uvarov (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) is a little known genus consisting of three species: Ph. satunini, Ph. artvinensis and Ph. uvarovi. The objective of this study is to conduct a thorough distributional, taxonomic and systematic revision of the genus Phonochorion using both bioacustic and external morphological characters. Field surveys indicate that the genus is distributed from the Trabzon region of Turkey to the Khulo province of Georgia however the exact limit of the eastern distribution of the genus remains unknown. Phonochorion species occur only on the northern slopes of the East Black Sea and Lesser Caucasus Mountains. The Coruh Valley, which seprates the East Black Sea and Lesser Caucasus Mountain ranges, seems to be an effective physical and climatic barrier and determines the distribution of these species. Ph. uvarovi can clearly be distinguished from Ph. satunini and Ph. artvinensis by the calling songs of males and external morphological characters. Ph. artvinensis and Ph. satunini differ in several taxonomic characters but the males have virtually identical calling songs. From a character evolution perspective, although geographically more distant, Ph. satunini is more closely related to Ph. uvarovi than Ph. artvinensis. Morphological similarities in several characters indicate Phonochorion to be most closely related to Polysarcus zacharovi and the Poecilimon heroicus-group. Within the genus Phonochorion, song structure and morphological characters clearly indicate Ph. uvarovi to be the basal taxon.

Keywords: Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Phaneropterinae, Phonochorion, morphology, systematics, bioacoustics, distribution, bush-crickets, Caucasus, East Black Sea Mountains, Lesser Caucasus Mountains

Received: January 14, 2010; Accepted: March 15, 2010; Published: October 20, 2010

Download citation

References

  1. ADELUNG N.V. 1907: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Orthopterenfauna Transkaukasiens. Trudy Russk. Entomol. Obshch. 38: 32-82
  2. AKCAR N. & SCHLUCHTER C. 2005: Paleoglaciations in Anatolia: a schematic review and first results. Eiszeitalter Gegenw. 55: 102-121
  3. ATALAY I. 2006: The effects of mountainous areas on biodiversity: A case study from the Northern Anatolian Mountains and the Taurus Mountains. Grazer Schrift. Geogr. Raumforsch. 41: 17-26
  4. BAILEY W.J. & HAMMOND T.J. 2003: Duetting in insects - does call length influence reply latency? J. Zool. (Lond.) 260: 267-274 Go to original source...
  5. BEY-BIENKO G.YA. 1954: Fauna of the U.S.S.R. NS No. 59: Orthoptera, Vol. II, Sect 2. Bushcrickets. Subfam. Leaf Bushcrickets (Tettigonioidea, Phaneropterinae). Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. [English translation, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1965] 381 pp
  6. CIPLAK B., YALIM B., DEMIRSOY A. & SEVGILI H. 2002: Turkiye Orthoptera (Duzkanatli = Cekirge) faunasi. In Demirsoy A.: Genel Zoocografyasi ve Turkiye Zoocografyasi. 3rd ed. Meteksan, Ankara, pp. 681-707
  7. GARNIER S., MAGNIEZ-JANNIN F., RASPLUS J.Y. & ALIBERT P. 2005: When morphometry meets genetics: inferring the phylogeography of Carabus solieri using Fourier analyses of pronotum and male genitalia. J. Evol. Biol. 18: 269-280 Go to original source...
  8. HELLER K.-G. 1990: Evolution of song pattern in east Mediterranean Phaneropterinae: Constraints by the communication system. In Bailey W.J. & Rentz D.C.F.: The Tettigoniidae: Biology, Systematics and Evolution. Crawford House Press, Bathurst & Springer, Berlin, pp. 130-151
  9. HELLER K.-G., WILLEMSE F. & SEVGILI H. 2004: Poecilimon mytilenesis Werner, a polytypic phaneropterid bushcricket from the Aegean Island of Lesbos (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea), differing in male mating structures. J. Orthopt. Res. 13: 221-230 Go to original source...
  10. HELLER K.-G., KORSUNOVSKAYA O.S., SEVGILI H. & ZHANTIEV R.D. 2006: Bioacoustics and systematics of the Poecilimon heroicus-group (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae: Barbitistinae). Eur. J. Entomol. 103: 853-856 Go to original source...
  11. HELVERSEN D. & HELVERSEN O. 1991: Pre-mating sperm removal in the bushcricket Metaplastes ornatus Ramme 1931 (Orthoptera, Tettigonoidea, Phaneropteridae). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 28: 391-396 Go to original source...
  12. KARABAG T. 1950: Five new species of Poecilimon Fischer (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae) from Turkey. Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 19: 157-161
  13. KARABAG T. 1956: The genus Phonochorion Uvarov (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (B) 25: 49-52
  14. KARABAG T. 1958: The Orthoptera fauna of Turkey. T.C. Ankara Univ. Fen Fakultesi Yayinlari 81: 1-198
  15. KARTSIVADZE N. 1949: New data on some Tettigoniidae of Georgia. Trudy Tbilisskogo Zooparka 2: 143-152
  16. KORSUNOVSKAYA O. 2008: Acoustic signals in katydids (Orthoptera, Tettigonidae). Communication I. Entomol. Rev. 88: 1032-1050 Go to original source...
  17. MCGINLEY M. (TOPIC ED.) 2008: Biological diversity in the Caucasus. In Cleveland C.J. (ed): Encyclopedia of Earth. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Biological_diversity_in_the_C aucasus
  18. MIRAM E. 1929: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der palaarktischen Orthopteren. C. R. Acad. Sci. URSS 1929: 115-118
  19. MUTANEN M., KAITALA A. & MONKKONEN M. 2006: Genital variation within and between three closely related Euxoa moth species: testing the lock-and-key hypothesis. J. Zool. 268: 109-120 Go to original source...
  20. POLIHRONAKIS M. 2006: Morphometric analysis of intraspecific shape variation in male and female genitalia of Phyllophaga hirticula (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 99: 144-150 Go to original source...
  21. RAGGE D.R. & REYNOLDS W.J. 1998: The Songs of the Grasshoppers and Crickets of Western Europe. Harley Books, Clochester, 591 pp
  22. SALMAN S. 1978: A/ri, Kars ve Artvin illerinin Orthoptera (Insecta) faunasi uezerine taksonomik arautirmalar. [Taxonomic Research on the Orthoptera (Insecta) Fauna of A/ri, Kars and Artvin Provinces.] Atatuerk University Press 490, Faculty of Science Press 82, Research Series 54, Erzurum, pp. 1-128
  23. SEVGILI H., CIPLAK B., HELLER K.-G. & DEMIRSOY A. 2006: Morphology, bioacoustics and phylogeography of the Isophya major group (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae). Eur. J. Entomol. 103: 657-671 Go to original source...
  24. SONG H. & WENZEL J. 2008: Mosaic pattern of genital divergence in three populations of Schistocerca lineata Scudder, 1899 (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Cyrtacanthacridinae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 94: 289-302 Go to original source...
  25. STSHELKANOVTZEV J.P. 1911: Notes on Russian saltatorial Orthoptera. Trav. Lab. Cab. Zool. Univ. Varsovie 1910: 153-180 [in Russian]
  26. TARBINSKII S.P. 1940: Saltatorial Orthoptera of the Azerbaidzhan SSR. Moskva, Leningrad, 345 pp
  27. UNAL M. 2005: Phaneropterinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from Turkey and the Middle East. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 131: 425-448
  28. UVAROV B.P. 1916: New Caucasian Orthoptera from the collection of K.A. Satunin. Izv. Kavkaz. Muz. 10: 45-53
  29. UVAROV B.P. 1921: Some new Orthoptera from the Caucasus. Entomol. Mon. Mag. 7: 44-50
  30. ZENGIN M., KOPAR I. & KARAHAN F. 2010: Determination of bioclimatic comfort in Erzurum-Rize expressway corridor using GIS. Building Environ. 45: 158-164 Go to original source...
  31. Databank: www.tettigonia.com