Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 597-613, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.069

Homologies of the head of Membracoidea based on nymphal morphology with notes on other groups of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera)

Dmitry A. DMITRIEV
Illinois Natural History Survey, Institute of Natural Resource Sustainability at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois, USA; e-mail: dmitriev@inhs.uiuc.edu

The ground plan and comparative morphology of the nymphal head of Membracoidea are presented with particular emphasis on the position of the clypeus, frons, epistomal suture, and ecdysial line. Differences in interpretation of the head structures in Auchenorrhyncha are discussed. Membracoidea head may vary more extensively than heads in any other group of insects. It is often modified by the development of an anterior carina, which apparently was gained and lost multiple times within Membracoidea. The main modifications of the head of Membracoidea and comparison of those changes with the head of other superfamilies of Auchenorrhyncha are described.

Keywords: Hemiptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae, Cicadoidea, Cercopoidea, Fulgoroidea, head, morphology, ground plan

Received: September 23, 2009; Accepted: May 17, 2010; Published: October 20, 2010

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