Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 553-561, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.064

Carabid beetle assemblages associated with urban golf courses in the greater Helsinki area

Jarmo SAARIKIVI, Laura IDSTRÍM, Stephen VENN, Jari NIEMEL─, D. Johan KOTZE
Urban Ecology Research Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, PO Box 65, FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland;

Golf is a popular sport, with increasingly large areas of urban and peri-urban land being designated for golf course development. Yet, more than half of the land area of a typical golf course is considered rough and out-of-play areas that can, if managed appropriately, provide habitats for wildlife. Using pitfall traps, 6944 carabid beetles belonging to 72 species were collected from five urban golf courses and three areas designated for golf course development around the city of Helsinki, Finland in 2007. The courses were rich in carabid species and distinct in their species assemblages. Golf courses were dominated by habitat generalists, species capable of flight and medium to large-sized species. The three courses with areas designated for further golf course development showed that the assemblages of beetles associated with these golf courses have retained many elements from the pre-existing habitats. The oldest golf course is characterised by a more evenly distributed and diverse carabid beetle assemblage, probably due to its higher habitat heterogeneity and longer successional development. However, even this golf course is dominated by generalist species, implying that golf courses may not provide suitable habitats for specialists. It is assumed that the high species richness of golf courses is attributed to the high habitat diversity of these environments, ranging from the strongly human-modified to more natural patches, which provide habitats for many generalist and open-habitat species. Golf courses may, however, with the appropriate management of out-of-play areas provide an opportunity for conserving biodiversity.

Keywords: Carabidae, ground beetles, anthropogenic habitats, conservation, species assemblage, biodiversity, Helsinki area

Received: November 27, 2009; Accepted: March 29, 2010; Published: October 20, 2010

Download citation

References

  1. ANONYMUS 2005: Statement of the Finnish Golf Union 27.5.2005. http://www.hel2.fi/ksv/hela/Kaupunkisuunnittelulautakunta/E sityslistat/062330086.htm (accessed 20.3.2009) [in Finnish]
  2. ANONYMUS 2008: Helsinki city nature conservation programme 2008-2017. Publications of Helsinki environment centre 16. 72 pages, 8 appendices [in Finnish]
  3. DANIELS J.C. & EMMEL T.C. 2004: Florida golf courses help save the endangered butterfly. USGA Turfgrass Envir. Res. Online 3: 1-7
  4. DODSON R.G. 2000: Managing Wildlife Habitat on Golf Courses. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 177 pp
  5. FARRALLY M.R., COCHRAN A.J., CREWS D.J., HURDZAN M.J., PRICE R.J., SNOW J.T. & THOMAS P.R. 2003: Golf science research at the beginning of the twenty-first century. J. Sports Sci. 21: 753-765 Go to original source...
  6. GANGE A.C., LINDSAY D.E. & SCHOFIELD J.M. 2003: The ecology of golf courses. Biologist 50: 63-68
  7. GRANDCHAMP A.-C., NIEMELA J. & KOTZE J. 2000: The effects of trampling on assemblages of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in urban forests in Helsinki, Finland. Urban Ecosyst. 4: 321-332 Go to original source...
  8. HUNTER JR. M.L. 2005: A mesofilter conservation strategy to complement fine and coarse filters. Conserv. Biol. 19: 1025-1029 Go to original source...
  9. JOKINEN J. 2007: Effects of Mowing on Ground Beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) Assemblages of Urban Meadows. M.Sc. thesis. University of Helsinki, Dept. of Biological and Environmental sciences [in Finnish]
  10. KETOLA P. 2009: Effects of Urbanization and Management History on Carabid Beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Urban Meadows. M.Sc. thesis. University of Helsinki, Dept. of Biological and Environmental sciences [in Finnish]
  11. LAUKKANEN K., SAARINEN O. & WALDEN H. 2006: Handbook of Golf Course Environment. Finnish Golf Union, 100 pp. [in Finnish]
  12. LINDROTH C.H. 1985, 1986: The Carabidae (Coleoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 15, part 1, part 2. Scandinavian Science Press, Copenhagen, 514 pp
  13. LOPEZ R. & POTTER D.A. 2003: Biodiversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in golf course and lawn turf habitats in Kentucky. Sociobiology 42: 701-714
  14. MAGURRAN A.E. 2004: Measuring Biological Diversity. Blackwell, Oxford, 256 pp
  15. NIEMELA J. 1999: Ecology and urban planning. Biodivers. Conserv. 8: 119-131 Go to original source...
  16. PORTER E.E., PENNINGTON D.N., BULLUCK J. & BLAIR R.B. 2004: Assessing the conservation value of golf courses for butterflies. USGA Turfgrass Envir. Res. Online 3: 1-13
  17. PYKALA J. 2000: Mitigating human effects on European biodiversity through traditional animal husbandry. Conserv. Biol. 14: 705-712 Go to original source...
  18. R DEVELOPMENT CORE TEAM 2008: R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, URL http://www.R-project.org
  19. RASSI P. (ed.) 1993: Frequency Score of Coleoptera in Finland 1.1.1960-1.1.1990. Maailman Luonnon SaeaetiGn WWF Suomen Rahaston Raportteja no 6. Helsinki, 136 pp. [in Finnish, English abstr.]
  20. RASSI P., ALANEN A., KANERVA T. & MANNERKOSKI I. (eds) 2001: The Red List of Finnish Species. Ministry of the Environment, II Committee of the Monitoring of Threatened Species in Finland, Helsinki, 432 pp. [in Finnish, English abstr.]
  21. RAUNIO A., SCHULMAN A. & KONTULA T. (eds) 2008: Assessment of threatened habitat types in Finland. In: The Finnish Environment 8/2008. Parts 1 and 2. Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Helsinki, 264 + 572 pp. [in Finnish, English abstr.]
  22. SANTIAGO M.J. & RODEWALD A.D. 2004: Considering wildlife in golf course management. Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet. http://ohioline.osu.edu/w-fact/0015.html
  23. SAVARD J-P.L., CLERGEAU P. & MENNECHEZ G. 2000: Biodiversity concepts and urban ecosystems. Landsc. Urban Plan. 48: 131-142 Go to original source...
  24. SIMBERLOFF D.S. 1978: Use of rarefaction and related methods in ecology. In Dickson K.L., Garins Jr. J & Livingston R.J. (eds): Biological Data in Water Pollution Assessment: Quantitative and Statistical Analysis. American Society for Testing and Materials, STP 652, pp. 150-165
  25. STANGEL P. & DISTLER K. 2002: Golf courses for wildlife: Looking beyond the turf. USGA Turfgrass Envir. Res. Online 1: 1-8
  26. SUTHERLAND W.J., ADAMS W.M., ARONSON R.B., AVELING R., BLACKBURN T.M., BROAD S., CEBALLOS G., COTE I.M., COWLING R.M., DA FONSECA G.A.B., DINERSTEIN E., FERRARO P.J., FLEISHMAN E., GASCON C., HUNTER JR. M., HUTTON J., KAREIVA P., KURIA A., MACDONALD D.W., MACKINNON K., MADGWICK F.J., MASCIA M.B., MCNEELY J., MILNER-GULLAND E.J., MOON S., MORLEY C.G., NELSON S., OSBORN D., PAI M., PARSONS E.C.M., PECK L.S., POSSINGHAM H., PRIOR S.V., PULLIN A.S., RANDS M.R.W., RANGANATHAN J., REDFORD K.H., RODRIGUEZ J.P., SEYMOUR F., SOBEL J., SODHI N.S., STOTT A., VANCE-BORLAND K. & WATKINSON A.R. 2009: One hundred questions of importance to the conservation of global biological diversity. Conserv. Biol. 23: 557-567 Go to original source...
  27. TANNER R.A. & GANGE A.C. 2005: Effects of golf courses on local biodiversity. Landsc. Urban Plan. 71: 137-146 Go to original source...
  28. TERMAN M.R. 1997: Natural links: naturalistic golf courses as wildlife habitat. Landsc. Urban Plan. 38: 183-197 Go to original source...
  29. THIEN S., STARRETT S., ROBEL R., SHEA P., GOURLAY D. & ROTH C. 2004: A multiple index environmental quality evaluation and management system: application to a golf course. USGA Turfgrass Envir. Res. Online 3: 1-10
  30. TILLY D. 2000: Golf course program produces many birds. J. North Am. Bluebird Soc. 22(1): 16
  31. VENN S. & ROKALA K. 2005: Effects of grassland management strategy on the carabid fauna of urban parks. In Sklodowski J., Huruk S., Barsevskis A. & Tarasiuk S. (eds): Protection of Coleoptera in the Baltic Sea Region. Warsaw Agricultural University Press, pp. 65-75