Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 535-540, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.061

Distribution, abundance and host association of two parasitoid species attacking frugivorous drosophilid larvae in central Japan

Hideyuki MITSUI, Masahito T. KIMURA*
Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810, Japan;

In central Japan Ganaspis xanthopoda and Asobara japonica commonly parasitize the larvae of frugivorous drosophilids, mainly in montane forests, and urban environments and small groves, respectively. These two parasitoids start reproduction about one month later than their host drosophilids, probably to avoid searching for hosts when host density is low in early spring. It is likely that the local variation in the abundance of these parasitoids and a temporal refuge for their hosts contribute to the persistence of this parasitoid-host community. The forest species, G. xanthopoda, parasitized at least three Drosophila species that are abundant in forests, supporting the hypothesis that parasitoids are better adapted to attack frequently-encountered host species. This parasitoid did not parasitize drosophilid species that are phylogenetically distantly-related to the three host species or less frequent in forests. Benefits of using such species as host would not exceed the costs of evolving virulence to them. Another parasitoid, A. japonica, parasitized various indigenous and exotic drosophilid species including those that it rarely encountered in the field. It is not clear why this species has such a wide host range.

Keywords: Hymenoptera, Asobara japonica, Ganaspis xanthopoda, parasitoids, drosophilid flies, abundance, distribution, coevolution, host association

Received: December 8, 2009; Accepted: April 8, 2010; Published: October 20, 2010

Download citation

References

  1. BEPPU K. 2000: Faunal and ecological surveys on drosophilid flies in the Imperial Palace, Tokyo. Mem. Nat. Sci. Mus. 36: 409-435
  2. BEPPU K. 2006: Seasonal change of drosophilid assemblage and adult age structure of the common drosophilid species in the Imperial Palace Grounds, Tokyo. Mem. Nat. Sci. Mus. 43: 295-334 [in Japanese with English abstr.]
  3. FURIHATA S.X. & KIMURA M.T. 2009: Effects of Asobara japonica venom on larval survival of host and nonhost Drosophila species. Physiol. Entomol. 34: 292-295 Go to original source...
  4. HASSELL M.P. 2000: Host-parasitoid population dynamics. J. Anim. Ecol. 69: 543-566 Go to original source...
  5. HASSELL M.P. & MAY R.M. 1973: Stability in insect hostparasite models. J. Anim. Ecol. 42: 693-726 Go to original source...
  6. HASSELL M.P. & MAY R.M. 1986: Generalist and specialist natural enemies in insect predator-prey interactions. J. Anim. Ecol. 55: 923-940 Go to original source...
  7. HASSELL M.P., PACALA S.W., MAY R.M. & CHESSON P.L. 1991: The persistence of host-parasitoid associations in patchy environments. I. A general criterion. Am. Nat. 138: 568-583 Go to original source...
  8. IDEO S., WATADA M., MITSUI H. & KIMURA M.T. 2008: Host range of Asobara japonica (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of drosophilid flies. Entomol. Sci. 11: 1-6 Go to original source...
  9. KAWANISHI M. & WATANABE T.K. 1977: Ecological factors controlling the coexistence of the sibling species Drosophila simulans and D. melanogaster. Jpn. J. Ecol. 27: 279-283
  10. KIMURA M.T. 1987: Habitat differentiation and speciation in the Drosophila auraria species-complex (Diptera: Drosophilidae). KontyC 55: 429-436
  11. KIMURA M.T., TODA M.J., BEPPU K. & WATABE H. 1977: Breeding sites of drosophilid flies in and near Sapporo, northern Japan, with supplementary notes on adult feeding habits. KontyC 45: 571-582
  12. KUROKAWA H. 1967: Population genetics of three races of Drosophila auraria Peng. III. Geographical and ecological distribution of the races, A, B, and C, with special regard to its speciation. Jpn. J. Genet. 42: 109-119 Go to original source...
  13. LAPCHIN L. 2002: Host-parasitoid association and diffuse coevolution: when to be a generalist? Am. Nat. 160: 245-254 Go to original source...
  14. LEI G.C. & HANSKI I. 1998: Spatial dynamics of competing specialist parasitoids in host metapopulation. J. Anim. Ecol. 67: 422-433 Go to original source...
  15. MITSUI H. & KIMURA M.T. 2000a: Food preference of drosophilid flies in domestic and forest areas of central Japan. Entomol. Sci. 3: 285-289
  16. MITSUI H. & KIMURA M.T. 2000b: Coexistence of drosophilid flies: aggregation, patch size diversity and parasitism. Ecol. Res. 15: 95-100 Go to original source...
  17. MITSUI H., TAKAHASHI K.H. & KIMURA M.T. 2006: Spatial distributions and clutch sizes of Drosophila species ovipositing on cherry fruits of different stages. Popul. Ecol. 48: 233-237 Go to original source...
  18. MITSUI H., VAN ACHTERBERG K., NORDLANDER G. & KIMURA M.T. 2007: Geographical distributions and host associations of larval parasitoids of frugivorous Drosophilidae in Japan. J. Nat. Hist. 41: 1731-1738 Go to original source...
  19. MITSUI H., BEPPU K. & KIMURA M.T. 2010: Seasonal life cycles and resource uses of flower- and fruit-feeding drosophilid flies (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in central Japan. Entomol. Sci. 13: 60-67 Go to original source...
  20. MUNSTER-SWENDSEN M. & NACHMAN G. 1978: Asynchrony in insect-host parasite interactions and its effect on stability, studied by a simulation model. J. Anim. Ecol. 50: 855-865 Go to original source...
  21. MURATA Y., IDEO S., WATADA M., MITSUI H. & KIMURA M.T. 2009: Genetic and physiological variation among sexual and parthenogenetic populations of Asobara japonica (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of drosophilid flies. Eur. J. Entomol. 106: 171-178 Go to original source...
  22. MURDOCH W.W. & OATEN A. 1975: Predation and population stability. Adv. Ecol. Res. 9: 2-131 Go to original source...
  23. NICHOLSON A.J. 1933: The balance of animal populations. J. Anim. Ecol. 2: 131-178 Go to original source...
  24. NISHIHARU S. 1980: A Study of Ecology and Evolution of Drosophilid Flies with Special Regard to Imaginal and Larval Feeding Habits and Seasonal Population Fluctuations. Doctor of Science Thesis, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo
  25. OKADA T. & KUROKAWA H. 1957: New or little known species of Drosophilidae of Japan (Diptera). KontyC 25: 1-12
  26. SASAKI A. & GODFRAY H.C.J. 1999: A model for the coevolution of resistance and virulence in coupled host-parasitoid interactions. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (B) 266: 455-463 Go to original source...
  27. SCHILTHUIZEN M., NORDLANDER G., STOUTHAMER R. & VAN ALPHEN J.J.M. 1998: Morphological and molecular phylogenetics in the genus Leptopilina (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Eucoilidae). Syst. Entomol. 23: 253-264 Go to original source...
  28. SOUTHWOOD T.R.E. & COMINS H.N. 1976: A synoptic population model. J. Anim. Ecol. 45: 949-965 Go to original source...