Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 521-525, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.059

Pre-diapause mating and overwintering of fertilized adult females: New aspects of the life cycle of the wing-polymorphic bug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

Radomír SOCHA
Biology Centre ASCR, Institute of Entomology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic;

New aspects of the life-cycle of the flightless wing-polymorphic bug Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) are described. It was found that 1.1-14.9% of the adult females of P. apterus in 11 samples collected from 4 populations in the South Bohemia had mated prior to entering diapause and their ovaries were in the pre-vitellogenic stage of development with viable sperm in their spermathecae. Some of these females successfully overwintered. The percentage of overwintering females that had been fertilized ranged from 1.1 to 7.2 % and depended on the month and year of collection. The results indicate that pre-diapause mating and overwintering of fertilized females is not unusual in populations of P. apterus in the Czech Republic and and that sperm in overwintering female survives for at least 7-8 months.

Keywords: Pre-diapause mating, fertilized females, overwintering, wing polymorphism, life cycle, firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus

Received: May 10, 2010; Accepted: July 7, 2010; Published: October 20, 2010

Download citation

References

  1. BERNASCONI G., HELLRIEGEL B., HEYLAND A. & WARD P.I. 2002: Sperm survival in the female reproductive tract in the fly Scatophaga stercoraria (L.). J. Insect Physiol. 48: 197-203 Go to original source...
  2. BLOCH QAZI M.C., HERBECK J.T. & LEWIS S.M. 1996: Mechanisms of sperm transfer and storage in the red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 89: 892-897 Go to original source...
  3. BRISKIE J.V. & MONTGOMERIE R. 1993: Patterns of sperm storage in relation to sperm competition in passerine birds. Condor 95: 442-454 Go to original source...
  4. COLLET J.I. & JARMAN M.G. 2001: Adult female Drosophila pseudoobscura survive and carry fertile sperm through long periods in the cold: Populations are unlikely to suffer substantial bottlenecks in overwintering. Evolution 55: 840-845 Go to original source...
  5. EADY P.E. 1994: Sperm transfer and storage in relation to sperm competition in Callosobruchus maculatus. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 35: 123-129 Go to original source...
  6. FUJISAKI K. 1992: A male fitness advantage to wing reduction in the oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus Okajima (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae). Res. Popul. Ecol. 34: 173-183 Go to original source...
  7. HATCH S.A. 1983: Mechanism and ecological significance of sperm storage in the Northern fulmar with reference to its occurrence in order birds. Auk 100: 593-600
  8. HODEK I. 1968: Diapause in females of Pyrrhocoris apterus L. (Heteroptera). Acta Entomol. Bohemoslov. 65: 422-435
  9. HODEK I. 1971: Termination of adult diapause in Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) in the field. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 14: 212-222 Go to original source...
  10. HODEK I. 1988: Photoperiodic response and reproductive activity in Pyrrhocoris apterus L. (Heteroptera) in relation to diapause development. Zool. Jb. Physiol. 92: 57-70
  11. HODEK I. & CERYNGIER P. 2000: Sexual activity in Coccinelidae (Coleoptera): a review. Eur. J. Entomol. 97: 449-456 Go to original source...
  12. HODEK I. & LANDA V. 1971: Anatomical and histological changes during dormancy in two Coccinelidae. Entomophaga 16: 239-251 Go to original source...
  13. HONEK A. 1974: Wing polymorphism in Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae): influence of photoperiod. Vest. Cs. Spol. Zool. 38: 241-242
  14. HONEK A. 1976: The regulation of wing polymorphism in natural populations of Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera, Pyrrhocoridae). Zool. Jb. Syst. 103: 547-570
  15. HONEK A. 1981: Temperature and wing polymorphism in natural populations of Pyrrhocoris apterus L. (Heteroptera, Pyrrhocoridae). Zool. Jb. Syst. 108: 487-501
  16. HONEK A. 1986a: Enhancement of fecundity in Pyrrhocoris apterus under alternating natural conditions (Heteroptera, Pyrrhocoridae). Acta Entomol. Bohemoslov. 83: 411-417
  17. HONEK A. 1986b: Inheritance of wing form in Pyrrhocoris apterus. J. Hered. 77: 465-467
  18. HONEK A. 1987: Wing polymorphism in Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera, Pyrrhocoridae): penetrance of recessive macropterous homozygotes and duration of larval development. Genetica 73: 211-215 Go to original source...
  19. KOSTAL V. & SIMEK P. 2000: Overwintering strategy in Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera): the relations between life-cycle, chill tolerance and physiological adjustements. J. Insect Physiol. 46: 1321-1329 Go to original source...
  20. MERLE J. 1969: Anatomie des appareils genitaux male et femelle et fonctionnement ovarien de Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae). Acta Entomol. Bohemoslov. 66: 275-288
  21. MOUCHET J., REEGEAU J. & CHIPPAUX A. 1969: Hibernation de Culex modestus Ficalbi (Diptera, Culicidae) en Camargue. Cah. ORSTOM Ser. Entomol. Med. Parasitol . 7: 35
  22. NAESS T. & NILSSEN J.P. 1991: Diapausing fertilized adults. A new pattern of copepod life cycle. Oecologia 86: 368-371 Go to original source...
  23. OLIVIERI I., MICHALAKIS Y. & GOUYON P.H. 1995: Metapopulation genetics and the evolution of dispersal. Am. Nat. 146: 202-228 Go to original source...
  24. PARADIS E. 1998: Interactions between spatial and temporal scales in the evolution of dispersal rate. Evol. Ecol. 12: 235-244 Go to original source...
  25. PARKER G.A. 1970: Sperm competition and its evolutionary consequences in the insects. Biol. Rev. 45: 525-567 Go to original source...
  26. PENER M.P. 1992: Environmental cues, endocrine factors, and reproductive diapause in male insects. Chronobiol. Internat. 9: 102-113 Go to original source...
  27. POUVREAU A. 1963: Cycle biologique et interpretation de l'arret de developpement chez Pyrrhocoris apterus L. (Hemiptera, Gymnocerate, Pyrrhocoridae). Bull. Soc. Zool. France 1963: 180-196
  28. SCHULZE P. 1913: Bemerkungen zur Lebensgeschichte von Pyrrhocoris apterus L. Dt. Entomol. Z. 1919: 159-161
  29. SCHWOERBEL W. 1956: Beobachtungen und Untersuchungen zur Biologie einiger einheimischer Wanzen: Beobachtungen an einer Population von Pyrrhocoris apterus L. Zool. Jb. 84: 329-354
  30. SIMMONS L.W. 2001: Sperm Competition and its Evolutionary Consequences in the Insects. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford, 448 pp
  31. SO P.M. & TAKAFUJI A. 1991: Coexistence of Tetranychus urticae (Acraina: Tetranychidae) with different capacities for diapause: comparative life-history traits. Oecologia 87: 146-151 Go to original source...
  32. SOCHA R. 1993: Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera) - an experimental model species: a review. Eur. J. Entomol. 90: 241-286
  33. SOCHA R. 2001: Latitudinal gradient in response of wing polymorphism to photoperiod in a flightless bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae). Eur. J. Entomol. 98: 167-169 Go to original source...
  34. SOCHA R. 2004: Decreased mating propensity of macropterous morph in a flightless wing-polymorphic insect, Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) (Heteroptera). Eur. J. Entomol. 101: 539-545 Go to original source...
  35. SOCHA R. 2006: Endocrine control of wing morph-related difference in mating success and accessory gland size in male firebugs. Anim. Behav. 71: 1273-1281 Go to original source...
  36. SOCHA R. & HODKOVA M. 1994: Selection for non-diapause in the heteropteran Pyrrhocoris apterus. Hereditas 120: 81-85 Go to original source...
  37. SOCHA R. & SULA J. 1992: Voltinism and seasonal changes in haemolymph protein pattern of Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) in relation to diapause. Physiol. Entomol. 17: 370-376 Go to original source...
  38. SOCHA R. & SULA J. 1996: Differences in haemolymph proteins in relation to diapause and wing dimorphism in Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae). J. Comp. Physiol. (B) 166: 382-387 Go to original source...
  39. SOCHA R. & ZEMEK R. 2000a: Wing movement behavior in longand short-winged morphs of flightless bug Pyrrhocoris apterus L. (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae). J. Insect Behav. 13: 741-750 Go to original source...
  40. SOCHA R. & ZEMEK R. 2000b: Locomotor activity in adult Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera) in relation to sex, physiological status and wing dimorphism. Physiol. Entomol. 25: 383-389 Go to original source...
  41. SOCHA R. & ZEMEK R. 2003: Wing morph-related differences in the walking pattern and dispersal in a flightless bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) (Heteroptera). Oikos 100: 35-43 Go to original source...
  42. SULAIMAN S. & SERVICE M.W. 1983: Studies on hibernating populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens L. in southern and northern England. J. Nat. Hist. 17: 849-857 Go to original source...
  43. TABER S. & BLUM M.S. 1960: The preservation of honeybee semen. Science 131: 1734-1735 Go to original source...
  44. TISCHLER W. 1959: Zur Biologie der Feuerwanze Pyrrhocoris apterus L. Zool. Anz. 163: 392-396