Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (2): 271-275, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.035

Enhanced tolerance to water stress in adults of the South India strain of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), as a product of large body size

Jay A. YODER1, Brady S. CHRISTENSEN1, George D. KEENEY2
1 Department of Biology, Wittenberg University, Springfield, OH 45501, USA; e-mail: jyoder@wittenberg.edu
2 Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

A water balance study was conducted on newly-emerged adults of seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, to explore how South India strain survives longer than Brazil strain in laboratory cultures. No difference between strains was noted with regard to dehydration tolerance, and water conservation features confirm classification of this species as xerophilic. There was no evidence for critical transition temperature (CTT), thereby safeguarding against excessive water loss as the temperature rises, or for critical equilibrium humidity (CEH), indicating that water is imbibed as a liquid. In contrast to the Brazil strain, adults of the South India strain were distinguished by a larger body size, resulting in a lower net transpiration rate with suppressed activation energy (Ea, permeability constant) for water loss, and a lower percentage body water content due to a higher dry mass (fat). These modifications for water balance of the South India strain link enhancing time for reproduction and distribution spread in the adult with the higher seed consumption/respiratory rate trait that has been previously reported for larvae of this strain.

Keywords: Water balance, net transpiration rate, activation energy, Callosobruchus

Received: December 10, 2009; Accepted: January 19, 2010; Published: April 15, 2010

Download citation

References

  1. APPAEL A.G., MOAR W.J. & TANLEY M.J. 1999: Water loss and mortality of adult cowpea weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) exposed to desiccants and desiccating environments. Environ. Entomol. 28: 979-982
  2. BANDARA K.A.N.P. & SAXENA R.C. 1995: A technique for handling and sexing Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) adults (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 31: 97-100 Go to original source...
  3. BENOIT J.B., YODER J.A., RELLINGER E.J., ARK J.T. & KEENEY G.D. 2005: Prolonged maintenance of water balance by adult females of the American spider beetle, Mezium affine Boieldieu, in the absence of food and water resources. J. Insect Physiol. 51: 565-573 Go to original source...
  4. GIBBS A.G. 2002: Lipid melting and cuticular permeability: New insights into an old problem. J. Insect Physiol. 48: 391-400 Go to original source...
  5. GUEDES R.N.C., SMITH R.H. & GUEDES N.M.P. 2003: Host suitability, respiration rate and the outcome of larval competition in strains of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Physiol. Entomol. 28: 298-305 Go to original source...
  6. HADLEY N.F. 1994: Water Relations of Terrestrial Arthropods. Academic Press, New York, 356 pp
  7. JOHNSON C.G. 1940: The maintenance of high atmospheric humidities for entomological work with glycerol-water mixtures. Ann. Appl. Biol. 27: 295-299 Go to original source...
  8. MESSINA F.J. & MITCHELL R. 1989: Intraspecific variation in the egg-spacing behavior of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. J. Insect Behav. 2: 727-742 Go to original source...
  9. MITCHELL R. 1975: The evolution of oviposition tactics in the bean weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Ecology 56: 696-702 Go to original source...
  10. SCHMIDT G. 1955: Physiologische Untersuchungen zur Transpiration and zum Wassergehalt der Gattung Carabus (Ins. Coleopt.). Zool. Jb. Anat. 65: 459-495
  11. SMITH R.H. & LESSELLS C.M. 1985: Oviposition, ovicide and larval competition in granivorous insects. In Sibly R.M. & Smith R.H. (eds): Behavioral Ecology: Ecological Consequences of Adaptative Behaviour. Blackwell, London, pp. 423-448
  12. SOKAL R.R. & ROHLF F.J. 1995: Biometry: The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. 3. Freeman, San Francisco, 887 pp
  13. SOUTHGATE B.J. 1979: Biology of the Bruchidae. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 24: 449-473 Go to original source...
  14. TOOLSON E.C. 1978: Diffusion of water through the arthropod cuticle: Thermodynamic consideration of the transition phenomenon. J. Therm. Biol. 3: 69-73 Go to original source...
  15. WHARTON G.W. 1985: Water balance of insects. In Kerkut G.A. & Gilbert L.I. (eds): Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology. 4. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 565-603
  16. WINSTON P.W. & BATES D.S. 1960: Saturated solutions for the control of humidity in biological research. Ecology 41: 232-237 Go to original source...
  17. YODER J.A., HOUCK M.A., GOODIN B.R. & SMITH J.A. 1999: Maintenance of water balance in the twice-stabbed ladybird beetle, Chilocorus cacti (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), despite heavy infestation by the mite, Hemisarcoptes cooremani (Acari: Acariformes). Int. J. Acarol. 25: 337-340 Go to original source...