Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 65-72, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.008

Detection of oviposition-deterring larval tracks in Chrysopa oculata and Chrysopa perla (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

Zdeněk RŮŽIČKA
Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre of Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic;

We investigated the ability of females of the aphidophagous chrysopids Chrysopa oculata and Chrysopa perla to distinguish clean substrates from substrates with tracks of chrysopid first instars after ablation of various sensory organs potentially involved in the detection of oviposition-deterring semiochemicals (ODSCs). Also studied were effects of storage time on the degree of oviposition deterrence of substrates contaminated by larvae and by extracts of ODSC in intact females. C. oculata and C. perla laid significantly fewer eggs on substrates with conspecific larval tracks than on simultaneously provided clean substrates. Females of both chrysopids could perceive ODSCs solely through sense organs on the head. The oviposition of each species was significantly lower on contaminated than on clean substrates when any kind of sense organ on the head was completely removed, i.e. antennae, maxillary palpi, or labial palpi. C. oculata could still effectively differentiate substrates after ablation of both maxillary and labial palpi, indicating possible detection of volatiles via the antennae during flight. Only if all three pairs of sensory appendages were removed did females lay similar numbers of eggs on both substrates. In contrast, C. perla laid similar numbers of eggs on clean substrates and substrates with either conspecific or C. oculata larval tracks when maxillary and labial palpi were removed. Substrates with tracks of first instars of C. perla deterred C. oculata from oviposition after one year and conspecific females after 1.5 years from contamination. Both species laid significantly fewer eggs on substrates with tracks of C. oculata first instars than on clean substrates even after three years. Tracks of C. oculata third instars did not deter conspecific females more than tracks of first instars. ODSCs from tracks were easily extracted with water. Thus, precipitation is likely to reduce deterrent effects of contaminated plants. Chloroform extract from C. oculata first instars strongly deterred conspecific females from oviposition. Even after 725 days of storage, we found no statistically significant decline in the effect. The extract could be used to redirect egg laying from constructional parts of rearing cages to exchangeable oviposition substrates in mass rearing of chrysopids used for biological control. The hexane extract of third instars was inactive.

Keywords: Neuroptera, Chrysopidae, Chrysopa oculata, C. perla, antennae, cannibalism, palpi, pheromones, predator, semiochemical, sensory ablation

Received: June 30, 2009; Accepted: November 2, 2009; Published: February 15, 2010

Download citation

References

  1. ANBUTSU H. & TOGASHI K. 2000: Deterred oviposition response of Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) to oviposition scars occupied by eggs. Agric. Forest Entomol. 2: 217-223 Go to original source...
  2. ANBUTSU H. & TOGASHI K. 2001: Oviposition deterrent by female reproductive gland secretion in the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus. J. Chem. Ecol. 27: 1151-1161 Go to original source...
  3. BITSCH J. 1984: Anatomy of adult Chrysopidae. In Canard M., Semeria Y. & New T.R. (eds): Biology of Chrysopidae. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, pp. 29-36
  4. BENUZZI M., MANZAROLI G. & MOSTI M. 1991: Lotta biologica e integrata sulla fragola. Frutticoltura 9: 63-67
  5. BOO K.S., CHUNG I.B., HAN K.S., PICKETT J.A. & WADHAMS L.J. 1998: Response of the lacewing Chrysopa cognata to pheromones of its aphid prey. J. Chem. Ecol. 24: 631-643 Go to original source...
  6. CHAUHAN K.R. & WEBER D.C. 2008: Lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) tracks deter oviposition by the goldeneyed lacewing, Chrysopa oculata. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 18: 727-731 Go to original source...
  7. CHAUHAN K.R., ZHANG Q.H. & ALDRICH J.R. 2004: Iridodials: enantiospecific synthesis and stereochemical assignment of the pheromone for the golden-eyed lacewing, Chrysopa oculata. Tetrahedron Lett. 45: 3339-3340 Go to original source...
  8. CHAUHAN K.R., LEVI V., ZHANG Q.-H. & ALDRICH J.R. 2007: Female goldeneyed lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) approach but seldom enter traps baited with the maleproduced compound iridodial. J. Econ. Entomol. 100: 1751-1755 Go to original source...
  9. DOUMBIA M., HEMPTINNE J.-L. & DIXON A.F.G. 1998: Assessment of patch quality by ladybirds: role of larval tracks. Oecologia 113: 197-202 Go to original source...
  10. DUELLI P. 1980: Adaptive dispersal and appetitive flight in the green lacewing, Chrysopa carnea. Ecol. Entomol. 5: 213-220 Go to original source...
  11. DUELLI P. 1984: Dispersal and oviposition strategies in Chrysoperla carnea. In Gepp J., AspGck H. & HGlzel H. (eds): Progress in World's Neuropterology. Proc. I. Int. Symp. on Neuropterology. Thalerhof, Graz, pp. 133-146
  12. FERGUSON A.W., ZIESMANN J., BLIGHT M.M., WILLIAMS I.H., WADHAMS L.J., CLARK S.J., WOODCOCK C.M. & MUDD A. 1999: Perceptiom of oviposition deterring pheromone by cabbage weevil (Ceutorhynchus assimilis). J. Chem. Ecol. 25: 1655-1670 Go to original source...
  13. FRECHETTE B., CODERRE D. & LUCAS E. 2006: Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) females do not avoid ovipositing in the presence of conspecific eggs. Biol. Control 37: 354-358 Go to original source...
  14. HAGEN K.S. 1986: Ecosystem analysis: plant cultivars (HPR), entomophagous species and food supplements. In Boethel D.J. & Eikenbary R.D. (eds): Interactions of Plant Resistance and Parasitoids and Predators of Insects. Wiley, New York, pp. 151-197
  15. HAGEN K.S. & TASSAN R.L. 1966: The influence of protein hydrolysate of yeasts and chemically defined diets upon the fecundity of Chrysopa carnea Stephens (Neuroptera). Vest. Cs. Spol. Zool. 30: 219-227
  16. HAN B.Y. & CHEN Z.M. 2002a: Composition of the volatiles from intact and tea-damaged tea shoots and their allurement to several natural enemies of the tea aphid. J. Appl. Entomol. 126: 497-500 Go to original source...
  17. HAN B.Y. & CHEN Z.M. 2002b: Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of natural enemies to synomones from tea shoots and kairomones from tea aphids, Toxoptera aurantii. J. Chem. Ecol. 28: 2203-2219 Go to original source...
  18. HOKKANEN H.M.T. 1997: Role of biological control and transgenic crops in reducing use of chemical pesticides for crop protection. In Pimentel D. (ed.): Techniques for Reducing Pesticide Use. Wiley, New York, pp. 103-127
  19. HOOPER A.M., DONATO B., WOODCOCK C.M., PARK J.H., PAUL R.L., BOO K.S., HARDIE J. & PICKETT J.A. 2002: Characterization of (1R,4S,4aR,7S,7aR)-dihydronepetalactol as semiochemical for lacewings, including Chrysopa spp. and Peyerimhoffina gracilis. J. Chem. Ecol. 28: 849-864 Go to original source...
  20. HURTER J., KATSOYANNOS B., BOLLOR E.F. & WIRZ P. 1976: Beitrag zur Anreicherung und Teilweisen Reinigung der eiablageverhindernden Pheromons der Kirschenfliege, Rhagoletis cerasi L. (Dipt., Trypetidae). Z. Angew. Entomol. 80: 50-56 Go to original source...
  21. KLIJUSTRA J.W. & ROESINGH P. 1986: Perception of the oviposition-deterring pheromone by tarsal and abdominal contact chemoreceptors in Pieris brassicae. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 40: 71-79 Go to original source...
  22. LAUBERTIE E., MARTINI X., CADENA C., TREILHOU M., DIXON A.F.G. & HEMPTINNE J.L. 2006: The immediate source of the oviposition-deterring pheromone produced by larvae of Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). J. Insect Behav. 19: 231-240 Go to original source...
  23. MCEWEN P.K., NEW T.R. & WHITTINGTON A.E. 2001: Lacewings in the Crop Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 546 pp
  24. RAVENSBERG W.J. 1992: Production and utilization of natural enemies in western European glasshouse crops. In Anderson T.E. & Leppla N.C. (eds): Advances in Insect Rearing for Research and Pest Management. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 465-487
  25. REDDY G.V.P. 2002: Plant volatiles mediate orientation and plant preference by the predator Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Biol. Control 25: 49-55 Go to original source...
  26. REDDY G.V.P., HOLOPAINEN J.K. & GUERRERO A. 2002: Olfactory responses of Plutella xylostella natural enemies to host phero mone, larval frass, and green leaf cabbage volatiles. J. Chem. Ecol. 28: 131-143 Go to original source...
  27. REDDY G.V.P., TABONE E. & SMITH M.T. 2004: Mediation of host selection and oviposition behaviour in the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella and its predator Chrysoperla carnea by chemical cues from cole crops. Biol. Control 29: 270-277 Go to original source...
  28. RIDGWAY R.L. & JONES S.L. 1969: Inundative releases of Chrysopa carnea for control of Heliothis on cotton. J. Econ. Entomol. 62: 177-180 Go to original source...
  29. RUzICKA Z. 1994: Oviposition deterring pheromone in Chrysopa oculata (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 91: 361-370
  30. RUzICKA Z. 1996: Oviposition-deterring pheromone in Chrysopidae (Neuroptera): Intra- and interspecific effects. Eur. J. Entomol. 93: 161-166
  31. RUzICKA Z. 1997a: Persistence of the oviposition-deterring pheromone in Chrysopa oculata (Neur.: Chrysopidae). Entomophaga 42: 109-114
  32. RUzICKA Z. 1997b: Recognition of oviposition-deterring allomones by aphidophagous predators (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 94: 431-434
  33. RUzICKA Z. 1998: Further evidence of oviposition-deterring allomone in chrysopids (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 95: 35-39
  34. RUzICKA Z. 2001a: Oviposition responses of aphidophagous coccinellids to tracks of coccinellid (Coccinellidae) and chrysopid (Chrysopidae) larvae. Eur. J. Entomol. 98: 183-188 Go to original source...
  35. RUzICKA Z. 2001b: Response of chrysopids (Neuroptera) to larval tracks of aphidophagous coccinellids (Coleoptera). Eur. J. Entomol. 98: 283-285 Go to original source...
  36. RUzICKA Z. 2003: Perception of oviposition-deterring track in aphidophagous coccinellids Cycloneda limbifer and Ceratomegilla undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 100: 345-350 Go to original source...
  37. RUzICKA Z. & HAVELKA J. 1998: Effects of oviposition-deterring pheromone and allomones on Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 95: 211-216
  38. RUzICKA Z. & ZEMEK R. 2003: Effect of conspecific and heterospecific larval tracks on mobility and searching patterns of Cycloneda limbifer Say (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) females. In Soares A.O., Ventura M.A., Garcia V. & Hemptinne J.-L. (eds): Biology, Ecology and Behaviour of Aphidophagous Insects. Proc. 8th Int. Symp. Ecology of Aphidophaga. Arquipelago. Life and Marine Sciences. Suppl. 5, pp. 85-93
  39. RUzICKA Z. & ZEMEK R. 2008: Deterrent effects of larval tracks on conspecific larvae in Cycloneda limbifer. BioControl 53: 763-771 Go to original source...
  40. SCHOONHOVEN L.M. 1990: Host marking pheromones in Lepidoptera with special reference to two Pieris spp. J. Chem. Ecol. 16: 3043-3052 Go to original source...
  41. SENIOR L.J. & MCEWEN P.K. 2001: The use of lacewings in biological control. In McEwen P.K., New T.R. & Whittington A.E. (eds): Lacewings in the Crop Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 296-302
  42. STADLER E., ERNST B., HURTER J. & BOLLER E. 1994: Tarsal contact chemoreceptor for the host marking pheromone of the cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi: responses to natural and synthetic compounds. Physiol. Entomol. 19: 139-151 Go to original source...
  43. VAN EMDEN H.F. & HAGEN K.S. 1976: Olfactory reactions of green lacewing, Chrysopa carnea, to tryptophan and certain breakdown products (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Environ. Entomol. 5: 469-473 Go to original source...
  44. VAN LENTEREN J.C. 1972: Contact chemoreceptors on the ovipositor of Pseudocoila bochei Weld (Cynipidae). Neth. J. Zool. 22: 347-350 Go to original source...
  45. ZHANG Q.H., CHAUHAN K.R., ERBE E.F., VELLORE A.R. & ALDRICH J.R. 2004: Semiochemistry of the goldeneyed lacewing Chrysopa oculata: Attraction of males to a male-produced pheromone. J. Chem. Ecol. 30: 1849-1870 Go to original source...
  46. ZHANG Q.H., SHENG M.L., CHEN G.F., ALDRICH J.R. & CHAUHAN K.R. 2006: Iridodial: a powerful attractant for the lacewing Chrysopa septempunctata (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Naturwissenschaften 93: 461-465 Go to original source...
  47. ZHU J., COSSE A.A., OBRYCKI J.J., BOO K.S. & BAKER T.C. 1999: Olfactory reactions of the twelve-spotted lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata and the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea to semiochemical released from their prey and host plant: electroantennogram and behavioral responses. J. Chem. Ecol. 25: 1163-1177 Go to original source...
  48. ZHU J., UNELIUS R.C., PARK K.C., OCHIENG S.A., OBRYCKI J.J. & BAKER T.C. 2000: Identification of (Z)-4-tridecene from defensive secretion of green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea. J. Chem. Ecol. 26: 2421-2434 Go to original source...
  49. ZHU J., OBRYCKI J.J., OCHIENG S.A. BAKER T.C., PICKETT J.A. & SMILEY D. 2005: Attraction of two lacewing species to volatiles produced by host plants and aphid prey. Naturwissenschaften 92: 277-281 Go to original source...