Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 667-671, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.083

Do covers influence the capture efficiency of pitfall traps?

Sascha BUCHHOLZ1, Karsten HANNIG2
1 Department of Community Ecology, Institute of Landscape Ecology, University of Münster, Robert-Koch-Str. 26, 48149 Münster, Germany; e-mail: saschabuchholz@uni-muenster.de
2 Dresdener Str. 6, 45731 Waltrop, Germany

Pitfall traps are widely used in terrestrial ecology to capture ground-dwelling arthropods. In order to determine the effect of covers placed over pitfall traps on their efficiency at capturing of spiders, carabid beetles and ants, four types of pitfall trap were sunk into the ground at dry grassland sites: three pitfall traps were not covered, three were covered with white, three with green and three with black plastic covers. The total catch was 9,364 spiders, 4,352 carabid beetles and 4,157 ants. The distribution of species of spiders and carabid beetles, and the total catch of spiders, carabid beetles and ants did not differ significantly among the four types of trap. Therefore, covers do not appear to affect the capture efficiency of pitfall traps.

Keywords: Araneae, Carabidae, Formicidae, invertebrate sampling, methodology

Received: March 11, 2009; Accepted: June 11, 2009; Published: November 20, 2009

Download citation

References

  1. ADIS J. 1979: Problems of interpreting arthropod sampling with pitfall traps. Zool. Anz. 202: 177-184
  2. ANDERSON M.J. 2001: Permutation tests for univariate or multivariate analysis of variance and regression. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58: 626-639 Go to original source...
  3. ANDERSON M.J. 2004: PERMDISP: a FORTRAN computer program for permutational analysis of multivariate dispersions (for any two-factor ANOVA design) using permutation tests. Department of Statistics, University of Auckland, New Zealand
  4. BALOGH J. 1958: Lebensgemeinschaften der Landtiere. Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 560 pp
  5. BARBER H.S. 1931: Traps for cave-inhabiting insects. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 46: 259-266
  6. BOMBOSCH S. 1962: Untersuchungen ueber die Auswertbarkeit von Fallenfaengen. Z. Angew. Zool. 49: 149-160
  7. CHURCHILL T.B. 1993: Effects of sampling method on composition of a tasmanian coastal heathland spider assemblage. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 33: 475-481
  8. CLARKE K.R. 1993: Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Austral. Ecol. 18: 117-143 Go to original source...
  9. DAHL F. 1896: Vergleichende Untersuchungen ueber die Lebensweise wirbelloser Aasfresser. Sitzber. KGnigl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 1896: 11-24
  10. DAHL F. 1907: Die mechanische Methode in Sammeln von Tieren. Zool. Anz. 31: 917-919
  11. ENGELMANN H.-D. 1978: Zur Dominanzklassifizierung von Bodenarthropoden. Pedobiologia 18: 378-380
  12. ERICSON D. 1979: The interpretation of pitfall catches of Pterostichus cupreus and Pt. melanarius (Coloeoptera, Carabidae) in cereal fields. Pedobiologia 19: 320-328
  13. GREENSLADE P.J.M. 1964: Pitfall trapping as a method of studying populations of Carabidae (Coleoptera). J. Anim. Ecol. 33: 301-310 Go to original source...
  14. GREENSLADE P. & GREENSLADE P.J.M. 1971: The use of baits and preservatives in pitfall traps. J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 10: 253-260 Go to original source...
  15. GRELL H. 1997: Die Flaschenfalle. Natursch. Landschaftsplan. 29: 126-127
  16. HOLOPAINEN J.K. & VARIS A.-L. 1986: Effects of a mechanical barrier and formalin preservative on pitfall catches of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in arable fields. J. Appl. Entomol. 102: 440-445 Go to original source...
  17. HONEK A. 1988: The effect of crop density and microclimate on pitfall trap catches of Carabidae, Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) and Lycosidae (Araneae) in cereal fields. Pedobiologia 32: 233-242.
  18. JUD P. & SCHMIDT-ENTLING M.H. 2008: Fluid type, dilution, and bitter agent influence spider preservation in pitfall traps. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 129: 356-359 Go to original source...
  19. LEYER I. & WESCHE K. 2007: Multivariate Statistik in der Okologie. Springer, Berlin, 221 pp
  20. LUFF M.L. 1968: Some effects of formalin on the members of Coleoptera caught in pitfall traps. Entomol. Mon. Mag. 104: 115-116
  21. LUFF M.L. 1975: Some effects influencing the efficiency of pitfall traps. Oecologia 19: 345-357 Go to original source...
  22. MANLY B.F.J. 1997: Randomization, Bootstrap and Monte Carlo Methods in Biology. Chapman & Hall, London, 455 pp
  23. MCCUNE B. & GRACE J.B. 2002: Analysis of Ecological Communities. MjM Software Design, Gleneden Beach, 300 pp
  24. MELBER A. 1987: Eine verbesserte Bodenfalle. Abh. Naturw. Verein Bremen 40: 331-332
  25. MELBOURNE B.A. 1999: Bias in the effect of habitat structure on pitfall traps: An experimental evaluation. Austral. Ecol. 24: 228-239 Go to original source...
  26. MITCHELL B. 1963: Ecology of two carabid beetles, Bembidion lampros (Herbst) and Trechus quadristriatus (Schrank). II. Studies on populations of adults in the field, with special reference to the technique of pitfall trapping. J. Anim. Ecol. 32: 377-392 Go to original source...
  27. MURL NRW (Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Raumordnung und Landwirtschaft des Landes NRW) (ed.) 1989: Klima-Atlas von Nordrhein-Westfalen. MURL NRW, Duesseldorf, 51 pp
  28. OKSANEN J., KINDT R., LEGENDRE P., O'HARA B., SIMPSON G.L., SOLYMOS P., STEVENS M.H. & WAGNER H. 2008: The vegan Package Version 1.15-0. - Online at: http://cran.r-project. org/, http://vegan.r-forge.r-project.org/ (27.04.2009)
  29. PEKAR S. 2002: Differential effects of formaldehyde concentration and detergent on the catching efficiency of surface active arthropods by pitfall traps. Pedobiologia 46: 539-547 Go to original source...
  30. RIPLEY B. 2008: The VR Package Version 7.2-45. - Online at: http://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/pub/MASS4/ (27.04.2009)
  31. SCHMIDT M.H., CLOUGH Y., SCHULZ W., WESTPHALEN A. & TSCHARNTKE T. 2006: Capture efficiency and preservation attributes of different fluids in pitfall traps. J. Arachnol. 34: 159-162 Go to original source...
  32. SPENCE J.R. & NIEMELA J.K. 1994: Sampling carabid assemblages with pitfall traps: the madness and the method. Can. Entomol. 126: 881-894 Go to original source...
  33. TOPPING C.J. 1993: Behavioural responses of three linyphiid spiders to pitfall traps. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 68: 287-293 Go to original source...
  34. TOPPING C.J. & SUNDERLAND K.D. 1992: Limitations to the use of pitfall traps in ecological studies exemplified by a study of spiders in a field of winter wheat. J. Appl. Ecol. 29: 485-491 Go to original source...
  35. TRETZEL E. 1955: Technik und Bedeutung des Fallenfanges fuer Gkologische Untersuchungen. Zool. Anz. 155: 276-287
  36. WAGGE B.E. 1985: Trapping efficiency of carabid beetles in glass and plastic pitfall trap containing different solutions. Fauna Norv. (B) 32: 33-36
  37. WARD D.F., NEW T.R. & YEN A.L. 2001: Effects of pitfall trap spacing on the abundance, richness and composition of invertebrate catches. J. Insect Conserv. 5: 47-53 Go to original source...