Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 607-610, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.076

The presence of micropyles in the shells of developing and undeveloped eggs of the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Naoya OSAWA1, Arata YOSHINAGA2
1 Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; e-mail: osawa@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2 Laboratory of Tree Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

In Hymenoptera and Heteroptera, the absence of micropyles is one criterion for categorizing an egg as trophic. Undeveloped eggs are observed in more than 90% of the egg clusters of the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas. Traditionally, these undeveloped eggs are regarded as "trophic eggs." The surfaces of the eggs of H. axyridis were examined using scanning electron microscopy and the presence of micropyles in the shells of developing and undeveloped eggs determined. Micropyles are circularly distributed around the top of eggs and present in both developing and undeveloped eggs. The number of micropyles in the shells of developing and undeveloped eggs did not differ significantly. Our results indicate that the undeveloped eggs of H. axyridis have micropyles, suggesting that the mechanisms regulating the production of undeveloped eggs in H. axyridis differ from those resulting in the production of trophic eggs by Hymenoptera and Heteroptera.

Keywords: Coccinellidae, Harmonia axyridis, hatchability, infertile egg, morphology, scanning electron microscopy, sibling cannibalism, trophic egg

Received: March 3, 2009; Accepted: July 31, 2009; Published: November 20, 2009

Download citation

References

  1. BROWN H.D. 1972: The behaviour of newly hatched coccinellid larvae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). J. Entomol. Soc. S. Afr. 35: 149-157
  2. CAMARGO-MATHIAS M.I. & CAETANO F.H. 1995: Trophic eggs in workers of Neoponera villosa ants (Hymenoptera: Ponerinae). J. Adv. Zool. 16: 62-65
  3. CHAPMAN R.F. 1998: The Insects. 4th ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 770 pp
  4. GOBIN B., PEETERS C. & BILLEN J. 1998: Production of trophic eggs by virgin workers in the ponerine ant Gnamptogenys menadensis. Physiol. Entomol. 23: 329-336 Go to original source...
  5. GULLAN P.J. & CRANSTON P.S. 2000: The Insect: An Outline of Entomology. 2nd ed. Blackwell, Oxford, 470 pp
  6. HINTON H.E. 1981: Biology of Insect Eggs. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1125 pp
  7. HODEK I. 1996: Food relationships. In Hodek I. & Honek A. (eds): Ecology of Coccinellidae. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 143-238
  8. HOLLDOBLER B. & WILSON E.O. 1990: The Ants. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 732 pp
  9. KATAKURA H. 1988: Epilachna vigintioctomaculata. The Japanese Insect Series no. 10. Bunichi Sougou Publishing, Tokyo [in Japanese]
  10. KAWAI A. 1978: Sibling cannibalism in the first instar larvae of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). KontyC 46: 14-19
  11. KUDO S., NAKAHIRA T. & SAITO Y. 2006: Morphology of trophic eggs and ovarian dynamics in the subsocial bug Adomerus triguttulus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae). Can. J. Zool. 84: 723-728 Go to original source...
  12. KUMAR V., KATIYAR R.L., BABU A.M., SARKAR A. & DATTA R.K. 2000: Light and SEM studies on the life stages of Illeis indica (Timb.) and its predatism on Phyllactinia corylea (Pers.) Karst. infecting mulberry. Arch. Phytopath. Pflanz. 33: 149-159 Go to original source...
  13. LU W., SOUPHANYA P. & MONTGOMERY M.E. 2002: Description of immature stages of Scymnus sinuanodulus Yu and Yao (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with notes on life history. Coleopt. Bull. 56: 127-141 Go to original source...
  14. MAZZINI M. 1975: Sulla fine struttura del micropilo negli insetti. Ultrastruttura dell'uovo di Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Red. Giorn. Zool. 56: 185-191
  15. OSAWA N. 1989: Sibling and non-sibling cannibalism by larvae of a lady beetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Res. Popul. Ecol. 31: 153-160. Go to original source...
  16. OSAWA N. 1992: Sibling cannibalism in the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas: fitness consequences for mother and offspring. Res. Popul. Ecol. 34: 45-55 Go to original source...
  17. OSAWA N. 2002: Sex-dependent effects of sibling cannibalism on life history traits of the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 76: 349-360 Go to original source...
  18. OSAWA N. 2003: The influence of female oviposition strategies on sibling cannibalism in the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis. Eur. J. Entomol. 100: 43-48 Go to original source...
  19. PERRY J.C. & ROITBERG B.D. 2005: Ladybird mothers mitigate offspring starvation risk by laying trophic eggs. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 58: 578-586 Go to original source...
  20. PERRY J.C. & ROITBERG B.D. 2006: Trophic egg laying: hypotheses and tests. Oikos 112: 706-714 Go to original source...
  21. POLIS G.A. 1981: The evolution and dynamics of interspecific predation. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 12: 225-251 Go to original source...
  22. SAS Institute 2000: JMP Statistical Discovery Software, ver. 4. SAS Institute, Cary, NC
  23. STEVENS L. 1992: Cannibalism in beetles. In Elgar M.A. & Crespi B.J. (eds): Cannibalism: Ecology and Evolution among Diverse Taxa, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 156-175