Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 573-581, 2009 | 10.14411/eje.2009.072

Artificial diet for two flat-headed borers, Capnodis spp. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

Galina GINDIN1, Tatiana KUZNETSOVA1, Alexei PROTASOV1, Shaul Ben YEHUDA2, Zvi MENDEL*,1
1 Department of Entomology, ARO, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
2 Ministry of Agriculture, Extension Service, Afula, Israel

The main objective was to develop an artificial diet for two flat-headed borers, Capnodis tenebrionis L. and C. carbonaria Klug. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which are severe pests of stonefruit plantations in the Mediterranean basin. The effect of proteins from various sources, percentage of cortex tissue in the diet and diet structure on larval growth and survival were investigated. The most successful diet contained 2.8% casein and 4.6% dry brewer's yeast as the protein source. For complete larval development and successful pupation it is essential to include cortex tissue from the host plant in the diet. Mean larval development time was shortened by 10-12 days when reared on a diet containing 20% cortex tissue compared with rearing on diet containing 10% cortex tissue. Two different diet structures were required, a viscous matrix for the first and second instar larvae and drier crumbly diet, which allows the larvae to move within the diet, for older larvae. At 28C on the artificial diet C. tenebrionis and C. carbonaria completed their development in 2-2.5 months compared to the 6-11 months recorded in Israeli orchards. C. tenebrionis successfully completed two generations on the artificial diet.

Keywords: Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Capnodis spp., artificial diet, rearing, larval behaviour, stonefruits

Received: February 2, 2009; Accepted: July 31, 2009; Published: November 20, 2009

Download citation

References

  1. AVIDOV Z. & HARPAZ I. 1969: Plant Pests of Israel. Israel University Press, Jerusalem, 549 pp
  2. BEN YEHUDA S., ASSAEL F. & MENDEL Z. 2000: Improved chemical control of Capnodis tenebrionis L. and C. carbonaria Klug (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in stone-fruit plantations in Israel. Phytoparasitica 28: 27-41 Go to original source...
  3. BLOSSEY B., EBERTS D., MORRISON E. & HUNT T.R. 2000: Mass rearing the weevil Hylobius transversovittatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), biological control agent of Lythrum salicaria, on semiartificial diet. J. Econ. Entomol. 93: 1644-1656 Go to original source...
  4. COHEN A.C. 2004: Insect Diets: Science and Technology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 429 pp
  5. COLASURDO G., VALLILLO E., BERCHICCI D., ROMUALDI G. & DE LILLO E. 1997: Prime esperienze di controllo degli adulti di Capnodis tenebrionis in Molise. Inf. Fitopatol. 10: 53-57
  6. DUBOIS G., HAJEK A.E. & SMITH S. 2002: Methods for rearing the Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on artificial diet. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95: 223-230 Go to original source...
  7. GARCIA M.T., PEREZ J.A., ARIAS A. & MARTINEZ DE VELASCO D. 1996: Poblacion de adultos y periodo de puesta de Capnodis tenebrionis (L.) (Col: Buprestidae) en los cerezos del Valle del Jerte. Bol. Sanid. Veg. Plagas 22: 451-463
  8. GARRIDO A. 1984: Bioecologia de Capnodis tenebrionis L. (Coleop.: Buprestidae) y orientaciones para su control. Bol. Sanid. Veg. Plagas 10: 205-221
  9. GARRIDO A., MALAGON J., DEL BUSTO J. 1990: Toxicidad de plaguicidas por contacto e ingestion sobre adultos de Capnodis tenebrionis (L.), (Coleop.: Buprestidae). Bol. Sanit. Veg. Plagas 16: 165-172
  10. GELMAN D.B., BELL R.A., LISKA L.J. & HU J.S. 2001: Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. J. Insect Sci. 1: 1-11 Go to original source...
  11. GOULD J., TANNER J., WINOGRAD D. & LANE S. 2004: Initial studies on the laboratory rearing of emerald ash borer and foreign exploration for natural enemies. Emerald Ash Borer Research and Technology Development Meeting, Romulus, Michigan, Oct. 5-6, 2004. USDA Forest Service Publication FHTET-2004-15
  12. HAAK R.A. & SLANSKY F. 1987: Nutritional ecology of woodfeeding Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. In Slansky F. & Rodriguez J.G. (eds): Nutritional Ecology of Insects, Mites and Spiders. John Wiley, New York, pp. 449-486
  13. HANKS L.M., PAINE T.D. & MILLAR J.G. 1993: Host species preference and larval performance in the wood-boring beetle Phoracantha semipunctata F. Oecologia 95: 1432-1939 Go to original source...
  14. HMIMINA M., SEKKAT A., LAHFA L. & HISTANE M. 1988: Cycle biologique de Capnodis tenebrionis L. (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) dans la region de Meknes. Actes Inst. Agron. Veter. Hassan II 8: 41-49
  15. MAHHOU A. & DENNIS F.G. JR 1992: The almond in Morocco. Hortic. Technol. 2: 488-492
  16. MALAGON J. & GARRIDO A. 1990: Relacion entre el contenido de glicosidos cianogenicos y la resistencia a Capnodis tenebrionis L. en frutales de hueso. Bol. Sanit. Veg. Plagas 16: 499-503
  17. MARANNINO P. & DE LILLO E. 2007a: The peach flatheaded rootborer, Capnodis tenebrionis (L.), and its enemies, IOBC/WPRS Bull. 30: 197-200
  18. MARANNINO P. & DE LILLO E. 2007b: Capnodis tenebrionis (L. 1758) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): morphology and behaviour of the neonate larvae, and soil humidity effects on the egg eclosion. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 43: 145-154 Go to original source...
  19. MARANNINO P., TARASCO E. & DE LILLO E. 2003: Biological notes on larval hatching in Capnodis tenebrionis (L.) (Coleoptera Buprestidae) and evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes in controlling neonate larvae. Redia 86: 101-105
  20. MARANNINO P., SANTIAGO-ALVAREZA C., DE LILLO E. & QUESADAMORAGA E. 2006: A new bioassay method reveals pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana against early stages of Capnodis tenebrionis (Coleoptera; Buprestidae). J. Invert. Pathol. 93: 210-213. Go to original source...
  21. MARANNINO P., SANTIAGO-ALVAREZA C., DE LILLO E. & QUESADAMORAGA E. 2008: Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch) Sorok. to target larvae and adults of Capnodis tenebrionis (L.) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in soil and fiber band applications. J. Invert. Pathol. 97: 237-244 Go to original source...
  22. MARTIN H. 1951: Contribution L l'etude du Capnode noir des arbres fruitiers (Capnodis tenebrionis L.) dans la region d'Alger. Rev. Pathol. Veg. Entomol. Agric. 30: 97-113
  23. MARTINEZ DE ALTUBE M., STRAUCH O., FERNANDEZ DE CASTROAND G. & MARTINEZ PENA A. 2008: Control of the flat-headed root borer Capnodis tenebrionis (Linne) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) in a chitosan formulation in apricot orchards. BioControl 53: 531-539 Go to original source...
  24. MENDEL Z., ASSAEL F. & BEN YEHUDA S. 2003: Host selection and root colonization of cyanogenic stonefruit species by Capnodis spp. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 96: 127-134 Go to original source...
  25. MORTON A. & GARCIA-DEL-PINO F. 2008: Field efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae against the Mediterranean flat-headed rootborer Capnodis tenebrionis. J. Appl. Entomol. 132: 632-637 Go to original source...
  26. MOURIKIS P.A. & VASILAINA-ALEXOPOULOU P. 1975: Ueber die Laborzucht und Entwicklung des Pfirsich-Prachtkaefers, Capnodis tenebrionis L. (Col., Buprestidae). Anz. Schaedlingsk. Pflanzensch. Umweltsch. 48: 75-77 Go to original source...
  27. MULAS M. 1994: Almond genetic resources and resistance to Capnodis tenebrionis. Acta Hort. 373: 41-48 Go to original source...
  28. OJIMA N., IKEDA S., KOICKE O., FUJITA K. & SUZUKI K. 2005: Continuous rearing of an entomoresource, the leaf beetle, Gastrophysa atrocyanea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on artificial diets. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 40: 119-124 Go to original source...
  29. PLEAU M.J., HUESING J.E., HEAD G.P. & FEIR D.J. 2002: Development of an artificial diet for the western corn rootworm. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 105: 1-11 Go to original source...
  30. RIVNAY E. 1944: Physiological and ecological studies on the species of Capnodis in Palestine (Col., Buprestidae). I. Studies on the eggs. Bull. Entomol. Res. 33: 235-242
  31. RIVNAY E. 1945: Physiological and ecological studies on the species of Capnodis in Palestine (Col., Buprestidae): II. Studies on the larvae. Bull. Entomol. Res. 36: 103-119 Go to original source...
  32. RIVNAY E. 1946: Ecological and physiological studies on Capnodis spp. (Col., Buprestidae) in Palestine: III. Studies on the adult. Bull. Entomol. Res. 37: 273-280 Go to original source...
  33. SALAZAR D.M., MIRO M. & GARCIA S: 1991: Rootstocks for dry region apricot tree faced with Capnodis tenebrionis L. Acta Hort. 293: 401-404 Go to original source...
  34. SANNA-PASSINO G. & DELRIO G. 2001: Eficacia de plaguicidas sobre larvas de Capnodis tenebrionis (L.). Bol. Sanit. Veg. Plagas 27: 59-64
  35. SAS INSTITUTE 2002: SAS/STAT User's Guide. Version 6.11. SAS Institute, Cary, N.C. Vol. 1 + 2 Go to original source...
  36. SEKKAT A., HMIMINA M., JOUDADI A., PEYRON X. & MAZOUZI B. 1997: Fipronil, insecticide pour lutter contre les larves neonates du capnode noir des arbres fruitiers. Quatrieme Conference Internationale sur les Ravageurs en Agriculture, 6-8 Janvier 1997, Le Corum, Montpellier, France. Vol. 2. pp. 347-354
  37. SHIMOJI Y. & YAMAGISHI M. 2004: Reducing rearing cost and increasing survival rate of West Indian sweetpotato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on artificial larval diet. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 39: 41-47 Go to original source...
  38. WARE V.L. & STEPHEN F.M. 2006: Facultative intraguild predation of red oak borer larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Environ. Entomol. 35: 443-447 Go to original source...