Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 535-544, 2009 | 10.14411/eje.2009.067

Effect of temperature on the reproduction and development of Trichogramma buesi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

Sergey Ya. REZNIK, Natalia D. VOINOVICH, Nina P. VAGHINA
Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia; e-mail: sreznik@zin.ru

At emergence females of Trichogramma had a lot of mature eggs in their ovaries, but some delayed parasitization or refused to parasitize a laboratory host. The effect of constant and alternating temperatures on the percentage of Trichogramma buesi females parasitizing Sitotroga cerealella eggs and the duration of the pre-parasitization period were investigated. The temperature dependencies of the rate of preimaginal development, pre-emergence survival, number of eggs laid daily, and total lifetime fecundity were also determined. As the temperature was increased from 12 to 35C, the median pre-oviposition period decreased from 5 days to 3 h, with maximum values of 24 and 1.5 days, respectively. The rate of induction of parasitization (reciprocal of duration of the pre-parasitization period of the females that parasitized) increased with temperature like the rate of preimaginal development and average number of eggs laid daily by a parasitizing female. Total cumulative percentage of parasitizing females reached a maximum (ca 60%) at temperatures of 25-30C, while at 12 and 35C, respectively, 25 and 50% of females parasitized the S. cerealella eggs. Average lifetime fecundity and pre-emergence survival showed a similar dependence on temperature. The influence of the thermorhythm (25C for 4 h and 15C for 20 h) was strongly dependent on its position within the photoperiod. When thermophase coincided with photophase, the percentage of females that parasitized was close to that recorded at a constant temperature of 25C. But when the high temperature pulse coincided with the dark period, the percentage of parasitizing females was the same as at 15C. Thus, the temperature dependence of ethogenesis (supposedly, an increase in motivation to parasitize or search for a host) in Trichogramma females was similar to that of morphogenesis, although the reaction to alternating temperatures may have been complicated by interaction with the light : dark regime.

Keywords: Temperature, Trichogramma, development, reproduction, pre-oviposition period, fecundity

Received: March 4, 2009; Accepted: May 6, 2009; Published: November 20, 2009

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