Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (1): 69-76, 2009 | 10.14411/eje.2009.011

Combined effect of environmental factors on distribution of Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in South Korea

Sei-Woong CHOI1, Jung-Hwa CHUN2
1 Department of Environmental Education, Mokpo National University, 61 Dorim-ri, Chungkye, Muan, Jeonnam 534-729, South Korea; e-mail: choisw@mokpo.ac.kr
2 Division of Forest Ecology, Korea Research Institute, 207 Cheongyangni 2-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-712, South Korea

We analyzed patterns of geometrid species richness in South Korea to assess the observed and estimated species richness gradient, to determine predictors for the distribution of moths and to investigate the effect of latitude on the species richness of moths in the Korean peninsula. The species richness was analyzed for 541 geometrid moths across 17 quadrates, with each quadrate defined by one degree of latitude and longitude. Two subgroups of geometrid moths were adopted according to their distributional ranges: Palearctic (435 species, 80.4%) and Oriental (106 species, 19.6%). To investigate the relationship between the distribution of geometrid moths and environment, eight variables were used. The estimated species richness of geometrids was calculated using the Chao 2 estimator because there was uneven sampling effort across the quadrates. Due to multicollinearity we used covariance values produced by principal component analysis and the first four axes adopted have eigenvalues >= 1.0. Two models of regression analyses were applied based on multiple linear regression using eight variables (model I) and principal components axes (model II). Of the two subgroups of geometrid moths the Palearctic species richness increased with latitude, but not that of Oriental species richness. A combined effect of abiotic (maximum altitude, temperature, rainfall, and latitude) and biotic (plant species richness and vegetation) variables was indicated by both models of regression analyses. The different effect of each spatial and environmental predictor on the distribution of geometrid moths on the Korean peninsula is discussed. The significant relationship between estimated species richness and latitude indicate a peninsular effect on geometrid moths in South Korea.

Keywords: Geometridae, habitat diversity, geography, climate, peninsular effect, South Korea

Received: May 26, 2008; Accepted: September 24, 2008; Published: March 10, 2009

Download citation

References

  1. AXMACHER J.C., HOLTMANN G., SCHEUERMANN L., BREHM G., MULLER-HOHENSTEIN K. & FIEDLER K. 2004: Diversity of geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) along an Afrotropical elevational rainforest transect. Divers. Distrib. 10: 293-302 Go to original source...
  2. BASELGA A. 2008: Determinants of species richness, endemism and turnover in European longhorn beetles. Ecography 31: 263-271 Go to original source...
  3. BECK J., SCHULZE C.H., LINSENMAIR K.E. & FIEDLER K. 2002: From forest to farmland: diversity and community structure of geometrid moths along two habitat gradients on Borneo. J. Trop. Ecol. 17: 33-51 Go to original source...
  4. BECK J., KITCHING I.J. & LINSENMAIR K.E. 2006: Determinants of regional species richness: an empirical analysis of the number of hawkmoth species (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) on the Malesian archipelago. J. Biogeogr. 33: 694-706 Go to original source...
  5. BECK J., KITCHING I.J. & HAZAIRE J. 2007: The latitudinal distribution of sphingid species richness in continental Southeast Asia: What causes the biodiversity "Hot spot" in northern Thailand? Raffles Bull. Zool. 55: 179-185
  6. BREHM G. & FIEDLER K. 2003: Faunal composition of geometrid moths changes with altitude in an Andean montane rainforest. Ecography 26: 456-466 Go to original source...
  7. BREHM G., SUSSENBACH D. & FIEDLER K. 2003: Unique elevational diversity patterns of geometrid moths in an Andean montane rainforest. Ecography 26: 456-466 Go to original source...
  8. CHOI S.-W. 2004: Trends in butterfly species richness in response to the peninsular effect in South Korea. J. Biogeogr. 31: 587-592 Go to original source...
  9. CHOI S.-W. 2006: Patterns of species description and species richness of Geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on the Korean peninsula. Zool. Sci. 23: 155-160 Go to original source...
  10. CHOI S.-W. 2008: Effects of weather factors on the abundance and diversity of moths in a temperate deciduous mixed forest of Korea. Zool. Sci. 25: 53-58 Go to original source...
  11. COLWELL R.K. 2006: EstimateS: Statistical Estimation of Species Richness and Shared Species from Samples. Version 8.0. User's Guide and application published at: http://purl.oclc. org/estimates
  12. COLWELL R.K. & CODDINGTON J.A. 1994: Estimating terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. (Biol. Sci.) 345: 101-118 Go to original source...
  13. COLWELL R.K. & LEES D.C. 2000: The mid-domain effect: geometric constraints on the geography of species richness. Trends Ecol. Evol. 15: 70-76 Go to original source...
  14. DENNIS R.L.H., SPARKS T.H. & HARDY P.B. 1999: Bias in butterfly distribution maps: the effect of sampling effort. J. Insect Conserv. 3: 33-42 Go to original source...
  15. FIELD A. 2000: Discovering Statistics Using SPSS for Windows. SAGE Publications, London, 496 pp Go to original source...
  16. GRAHAM M.H. 2003: Confronting multicollinearity in ecological multiple regression. Ecology 84: 2809-2815 Go to original source...
  17. HAWKINS B.A. & PORTER E.E. 2003: Does herbivore diversity depend on plant diversity? The case of California Butterflies. Am. Nat. 161: 40-49 Go to original source...
  18. HAWKINS B.A., FIELD R., CORNELL H.V., CURRIE D.J., GUEGAN J-F., KAUFMANN D.M., KERR J.T., MITTELBACH G.G., OBERDORFF T., O'BRIEN E.M., PORTER E.E. & TURNER J.R.G. 2003: Energy, water, and broad-scale geographic patterns of species richness. Ecology 84: 3105-3117 Go to original source...
  19. HAWKINS B.A., ALBUQUERQUE F.S., ARAUJO M.B., BECK J., BINI L.M., CABRERO-SANUDO F.J., CASTRO-PARGA I., DINIZ-FELHO J.A.F., FERRER-CASTAN D., FIELD R., GOMEZ J.F., HORTAL H., KERR J.T., KITCHING I., LEON-CORTES J.L., LOBO J.M., MONTOYA D., MORENO J.C., OLALLA-TARRAGA M.A., PAUSAS J.G., QIAN H., PAHBECK C., RODRIQUEZ M.A., SANDER N.J. & WILLIAMS P. 2007: A global evaluation of metabolic theory as an explanation for terrestrial species richness gradients. Ecology 88: 1877-1888 Go to original source...
  20. HOLLOWAY J.D. 1987: Macrolepidoptera diversity in the IndoAustralian tropics: Geographic, biotopic and taxonomic variations. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 30: 325-341 Go to original source...
  21. HORTAL J., GARCIA-PEREIRA P. & GARCIA-BARROS E. 2004: Butterfly species richness in mainland Portugal: predictive models of geographic distribution patterns. Ecography 27: 68-82 Go to original source...
  22. INTACHAT J., HOLLOWAY J.D. & STAINES H. 2001: Effects of weather and phenology on the abundance and diversity of geometrid moths in a natural Malaysian tropical rain forest. J. Trop. Ecol. 17: 411-429 Go to original source...
  23. KERR J.T., VINCENT R. & CURRIE D.J. 1998: Lepidopteran richness patterns in North America. Ecoscience 5: 448-453 Go to original source...
  24. KERR J.T., SOUTHWOOD R.E. & CIHLAR J. 2001: Remotely sensed habitat diversity predicts butterfly species richness and community similarity in Canada. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 11365-11370 Go to original source...
  25. KIVINEN S., LUOTO M., KUUSSAARI M. & HELENIUS J. 2006: Multiscale richness of boreal agricultural landscapes: effects of climate, biotope, soil and geographical location. J. Biogeogr. 33: 862-875 Go to original source...
  26. LEGENDRE P. & LEGENDRE L. 1998: Numerical Ecology. 2nd ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 853 pp
  27. LOBO J.M., CASTRO I. & MORENO J.C. 2001: Spatial and environmental determinants of vascular plant species richness distribution in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 73: 233-253 Go to original source...
  28. LUOTO M., HEIKKINEN R.K., POYRY J. & SAARINEN K. 2006: Determinants of the biogeographical distribution of butterflies in boreal regions. J. Biogeogr. 33: 1764-1778 Go to original source...
  29. MACARTHUR R.H. & WILSON E.O. 1967: The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, 203 pp
  30. MAC NALLY R. 2000: Regression and model-building in conservation biology, biogeography and ecology: the distinction between - and reconciliation of - "predictive" and explanatory models. Biodivers. Conserv. 9: 655-671 Go to original source...
  31. MCCUNE B. & MEFFORD M.J. 2006: PC-ORD. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data. Version 5.12. MjM Software, Gleneden Beach, Oregon
  32. MCQUILLAN P.B. 1986: Trans-Tasman relationships in the highland moth (Lepidoptera) fauna. In Barlow B.A. (ed.): Flora and Fauna of Alpine Australasia Ages and Origins. CSIRO, Canberra, pp. 265-276
  33. NOVOTNY V., DROZD P., MILLER S.E., KULFAN M., JANDA M., BASSET Y. & WEILBLEN G.D. 2006: Why are there so many species of herbivorous insects in tropical rainforests? Science 313: 1115-1118 Go to original source...
  34. POWELL J.A., MITTER C. & FARRELL B. 1998: Evolution of larval food preferences in Lepidoptera. In Kristensen N.P. (ed.): Lepidoptera, Moths and butterflies. Vol. 1. Evolution, Systematics and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology. Vol. IV. Arthropoda: Insecta. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 403-422
  35. RAHBEK C. & GRAVES G.R. 2001: Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 4534-4539 Go to original source...
  36. ROSENZWEIG M.L. 1995: Species Diversity in Space and Time. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 436 pp
  37. SCOBLE M.J. 1999: Geometrid Moths of the World: A Catalogue (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), Vols 1 and 2. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 116 pp
  38. SHIN Y.-H. 1996: Synonymic List and Distribution of the Geometridae of Korea (Lepidoptera). Center for Insect Systematics, Chuncheon, 153 pp
  39. SHIN J.-H. 2002: Ecosystem geography of Korea. In Lee D. (ed.): Ecology of Korea. Bumwoo Publishing, Seoul, pp. 19-46
  40. SIMPSON G.G. 1964: Species densities of North American recent mammals. Syst. Zool. 13: 57-73 Go to original source...
  41. SPSS INC. 2005: SPSS for Windows 12.0. SPSS Inc., Chicago. TEWS J., BROSE U., GRIMM V., TIELBORGER K., WICHMANN M.C., SCHWAGER M. & JELTSCH F. 2004: Animal species diversity driven by habitat heterogeneity/diversity: the importance of keystone structures. J. Biogeogr. 31: 79-92
  42. TUBELIS D.P., LINDENMAYER D.B. & COWLING A. 2007: The peninsular effect on bird species in native eucalypt forests in a wood production landscape in Australia. J. Zool. 271: 11-18 Go to original source...
  43. TURNER J.R.G., GATEHOUSE C.M. & COREY C.A. 1987: Does solar energy control organic diversity? Butterflies, moths and the British climate. Oikos 48: 195-205 Go to original source...
  44. WIGGINS D.A. 1999: The peninsular effect on species diversity: a reassessment of the avifauna of Baja California. Ecography 22: 542-547 Go to original source...