Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 807-814, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.107

Genetic diversity in European pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), populations assessed using AFLP analysis

Nadiya KAZACHKOVA1, Johan MEIJER*,1, Barbara EKBOM2
1 Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Genetics Center, PO Box 7080, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden; e-mail: Johan.Meijer@vbsg.slu.se
2 Department of Ecology, PO Box 7044, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden

The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) is one of the most important insect pests of oilseed rape (Brassica napus), and extensive use of insecticides is required to protect crop yields. To meet the challenges set by agricultural demands for more sustainable production and changing climate more information about pest biology and population genetics is needed. Using genomic Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, DNA polymorphism was studied in 14 field populations of pollen beetles, collected during 2004 in six European countries (Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Sweden, and UK). Using one primer combination 410 polymorphic DNA fragments were obtained based on analysis of single beetles. AFLP profiles were analysed with similarity measures using the Nei and Li coefficient and dendrograms generated. Dendrograms constructed from distance matrices revealed clustering by population origin and assignment analysis generally supported the genotype classification. Principal component analysis of the fourteen groups resulted in wide dispersion but also connections between some groups. Statistical analysis using AMOVA showed that the levels of genetic variation within populations explained most of the variation. Migrant analysis suggested a low level of gene flow between pollen beetle populations at different geographical locations indicating little long range dispersal of pollen beetles. However, a Mantel test found no correlation between genetic and geographical distance. Apparently genetic differentiation among populations has a complex background and may involve factors such as local adaptation and founder effects.

Keywords: Nitidulidae, AFLP, genetic variation, Meligethes aeneus, genotyping, insecticide resistance, population structure

Received: January 9, 2008; Accepted: September 24, 2008; Published: December 30, 2008

Download citation

References

  1. BALASARAVANAN T., PIUS P.K., KUMAR R.R, MURALEEDHARAN N. & SHASANY A.K. 2003: Genetic diversity among south Indian tea germplasm (Camellia sinensis, C. assamica and C. assamica spp. lasiocalyx) using AFLP markers. Plant Sci. 165: 365-372 Go to original source...
  2. BEHURA S.K. 2006: Molecular marker systems in insects: current trends and future avenues. Mol. Ecol. 15: 3087-3113 Go to original source...
  3. BENSCH S. & AKESSON M. 2005: Ten years of AFLP in ecology and evolution: why so few animals? Mol. Ecol. 14: 2899-2914 Go to original source...
  4. BLANC M.P., LUGON-NOULIN N., PANIGHINI C., PIJNENBURG H. & ROSSI L. 2006: Structure of worldwide populations of Lasioderma seerricorne as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism profiles. Bull. Entomol. Res. 96: 111-116 Go to original source...
  5. BONNEMAISON L. 1964: Insect pests of crucifers and their control. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 10: 233-256 Go to original source...
  6. BRANDON R. 1990: Adaptation and Environment. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ, 214 pp
  7. CAMPBELL D., DUCHESNE P. & BERNATCHES L. 2003: AFLP utility for population assignment studies: analytical investigation and empirical comparison with microsatellites. Mol. Ecol. 12: 1979-1991 Go to original source...
  8. COMINS H.N. 1977: The development of insecticide resistance in the presence of migration. J. Theor. Biol. 64: 177-197 Go to original source...
  9. DERRON J.O., LECLECH E., BEZENCON N. & GOY G. 2004: Resistance des meligethes du colza aux pyrethrinoides dans le basin lemanique. Rev. Suisse Agric. 36: 237-242
  10. DETOURNE D., DELORME R. & BALLANGER Y. 2002: Resistance des meligethes du colza: bilan de trois annees d'enquete. AFPP - Sixieme Conference Internationale sur les Ravageurs en Agriculture 4-6 Decembre 2002, Montpellier. AFPP, Paris
  11. EFRON B., HALLORAN E. & HOLMES S. 1996: Bootstrap confidence levels for phylogenetic trees. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 13429-13434 Go to original source...
  12. EKBOM B. 1995: Insect pests. In Kimber D.S. & McGregor D.I. (eds): Brassica Oilseeds: Production and Utilization. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, pp. 141-152
  13. EKBOM B. & BORG A. 1996: Pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) oviposition and feeding preferences on different host plant species. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 78: 291-299 Go to original source...
  14. EKBOM B. & KUUSK A.-K. 2001: Pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus) and resistance against pyrethroids. Vaextskyddsnotiser 65: 39-42 [in Swedish, English abstr.]
  15. ENDERSBY N.M., MCKECHNIE S.W., RIDLAND P.M. & WEEKS A.R. 2006: Microsatellites reveal a lack of structure in Australian populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Mol. Ecol. 15: 107-118 Go to original source...
  16. ERIKSSON G. 1998: Evolutionary forces influencing variation among populations of Pinus sylvestris. Silva Fenn. 32: 173-184 Go to original source...
  17. FELSENSTEIN J. 1989: PHYLIP - Phylogeny inference package (version 3.2). Cladistics 5: 164-166
  18. FFRENCH-CONSTANT R.H., DABORN P.J. & LE GOFF G. 2004: The genetics and genomics of insecticide resistance. Trends Genet. 20: 163-170 Go to original source...
  19. GIAMOUSTARIS A. & MITHEN R. 1996: The effect of flower colour and glucosinolates on the interaction between oilseed rape and pollen beetles. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 80: 206-208 Go to original source...
  20. GRAPPUTO A., BOMAN S., LINDSTROM L., LYYTINEN A. & MAPPES J. 2005: The voyage of an invasive species across continents: Genetic diversity of North American and European Colorado potato beetle populations. Mol. Ecol. 14: 4207-4219 Go to original source...
  21. HANSEN L.M. 2003: Insecticide-resistant pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus F) found in Danish oilseed rape (Brassica napus L) fields. Pest Manag. Sci. 59: 1057-1059 Go to original source...
  22. HEIMBACH U., MULLER A. & THIEME T. 2006: First steps to analyse pyrethroid resistance of different oil seed rape pests in Germany. Nachrbl. Dt. Pflschutzdienst. 58: 1-5
  23. HOPKINS R., EKBOM B. & HENKOW L. 1998: Glucosinolate content and susceptibility for insect attack of three genotypes of Sinapis alba. J. Chem. Ecol. 24: 1203-1216 Go to original source...
  24. KAZACHKOVA N., FAHLESON J. & MEIJER J. 2004: Establishment of the Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique for genotyping of pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) - a noxious insect pest on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Mol. Biol. Reports 31: 37-42 Go to original source...
  25. KAZACHKOVA N., MEIJER J. & EKBOM B. 2007: Genetic diversity in pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus) in Sweden: role of spatial, temporal and insecticide resistance factors. Agr. Forest Entomol. 9: 259-269 Go to original source...
  26. LABATE J.A. 2000: Software for population genetic analyses of molecular marker data. Crop Sci. 40: 1521-1528 Go to original source...
  27. LABBE P., LENORMAND T. & RAYMOND M. 2005: On the worldwide spread of an insecticide resistance gene: a role for local selection. J. Evol. Biol. 18: 1471-1484 Go to original source...
  28. LENORMAND T. & RAYMOND M. 1998: Resistance management: the stable zone strategy. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (B) 265: 1985-1990 Go to original source...
  29. LOWE A., HARRIS S. & ASHTON P. 2004: Ecological Genetics: Design, Analysis, and Application. Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 326 pp
  30. MARIETTE S., LE CORRE V., AUSTERLITZ F. & KREMER A. 2002: Sampling within the genome for measuring within-population diversity: trade-offs between markers. Mol. Ecol. 11: 1145-1156 Go to original source...
  31. NAHRUNG H.F. & ALLEN G.R. 2003: Geographical variation, population structure and gene flow between populations of Chrysophtharta agricola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a pest of Australian eucalypt plantations. Bull. Entomol. Res. 93: 137-144 Go to original source...
  32. NEI M. 1978: Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics 89: 583-590
  33. NEI M. & LI W.H. 1979: Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 5269-5273 Go to original source...
  34. NILSSON C. 2003: Parasitoids of pollen beetles. In Alford D.V. (ed.): Biocontrol of Oilseed Rape. Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp. 73-86
  35. PAETKAU D., CALVERT W., STERLING I. & STROBECK C. 1995: Microsatellite analysis of population structure in Canadian polar bears. Mol. Ecol. 4: 347-354 Go to original source...
  36. PEAKALL R. & SMOUSE P.E. 2006: GenAlEx6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol. Ecol. Notes 6: 288-295 Go to original source...
  37. PICHON A., ARVANITAKIS L., ROUX O., KIRK A.A., ALAUZET C., BORDAT D. & LEGAL L. 2006: Genetic differentiation among various populations of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella. Bull. Entomol. Res. 96: 137-144 Go to original source...
  38. QUINN G. & KEOUGH M. 2002: Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Biologists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 537 pp
  39. RASK L., ANDREASSON E., EKBOM B., ERIKSSON S., PONTOPPIDAN B. & MEIJER J. 2000: Myrosinase: Gene family evolution and herbivore defense in Brassicaceae. Plant Mol. Biol. 42: 93-113 Go to original source...
  40. REINEKE A., KARLOVSKY P. & ZEBITZ C.P.W. 1999: Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of different geographic populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Bull. Entomol. Res. 89: 79-88 Go to original source...
  41. ROHLF F.J. 1973: Algorithm 76. Hierarchical clustering using the minimum spanning tree. Computer J. 16: 93-95
  42. ROUSH R.T. & DALY J.C. 1990: The role of population genetics in resistance research and management. In Roush R.T. & Tabashnik B.E. (eds): Pesticide Resistance in Arthropods. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp. 97-152
  43. SAITOU N. & NEI M. 1987: The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol. Biol. Evol. 4: 406-425
  44. SALVATO P., BATTISTI A., CONCATO S., MASUTTI L., PATARNELLO T. & ZANE L. 2002: Genetic differentiation in the winter pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa - wilkinsoni complex), inferred by AFLP and mitochondrial DNA markers. Mol. Ecol. 11: 2435-2444 Go to original source...
  45. SCHNEIDER S., ROESSLI D. & EXCOFFIER L. 2000: Arlequin ver. 2000: A Software for Population Genetics Analysis. Genetics and Biometry Laboratory, Univ. of Geneva, Switzerland
  46. TAMIR L., SEDIVY J., BERGMANNOVA E. & HANKER I. 1967: Further experience obtained in studies on dispersal flight of Meligethes aeneus F., marked with P32. Acta Entomol. Bohemoslov. 64: 325-332
  47. VAN DE PEER Y. & DE WACHTER R. 1997: Construction of evolutionary distance trees with TREECON for Windows: accounting for variation in nucleotide substitution rate among sites. Comp. Applic. Biosci. 13: 227-230
  48. VEKEMANS X., BEAUWENS T., LEMAIRE M. & ROLDAN-RUIZ I. 2002: Data from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers show indication of size homoplasy and of a relationship between degree of homoplasy and fragment size. Mol. Ecol. 11: 139-151 Go to original source...
  49. VOS P.R., HOGERS M., BLEEKER M., REIJANS M., VAN DE LEE T., HORNES M., FRIJTERS A., POT J., PELEMAN J. & KUIPER M. 1995: AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucl. Acids Res. 23: 4407-4414 Go to original source...
  50. WIKTELIUS S. 1981: Wind dispersal of insects. Grana 20: 205-207 Go to original source...
  51. WILLIAMS I.H., FREARSON D., BARARI H. & MCCARTNEY A. 2007: Migration to and dispersal from oilseed rape by the pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus, in relation to wind direction. Agric. Forest Entomol. 9: 279-286 Go to original source...
  52. YOU F.M., LUO M.C., GU Y.Q., LAZO G.R., DEAL K., DVORAK J. & ANDERSON O.D. 2007: GenoProfiler: Batch processing of high throughput capillary fingerprinting data. Bioinformatics 23: 240-242 Go to original source...