Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (4): 697-706, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.095
The developmental process during metamorphosis that results in wing reduction in females of three species of wingless-legged bagworm moths, Taleporia trichopterella, Bacotia sakabei and Proutia sp. (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)
- 1 Department of Natural History, Graduate School of Sciences and
- 2 Laboratory of Systematic Zoology, Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Ohsawa, Hachioji-shi 192-0397, Japan; e-mail: email@example.com
There are several evolutionary grades of wing reduction in female bagworm moths of the family Psychidae. In this family, female adults of Taleporia trichopterella, Bacotia sakabei and Proutia sp. have vestigial wings, although as pupae they have small wings. Consequently, these species (usually called wingless-legged bagworm moths), are intermediate between the two extremes of females with normal wings and those with no wings. Using light and electron microscopy, the processes of wing development during the last-larval instar and wing degeneration during the pupal stage was investigated in these species. Female wing imaginal discs proliferated during the last-larval instar, but diminished due to apoptosis in the prepupal stage of the last instar. In the pupal stage, degenerate cells were observed between the epithelia of the degenerating wing discs of the female. The presence of these cells is associated with apoptotic cell death. These observations suggest that female-specific wing degeneration caused by apoptosis occurs in two steps in these bagworm moths, i.e. in the larval and pupal stages. Such a process of wing reduction has not been previously reported in holometabolous insects, and is reported here for the first time in bagworm moths.
Keywords: Psychidae, wingless-legged bagworm moth, wing reduction, apoptosis
Received: April 20, 2007; Accepted: January 8, 2008; Published: October 24, 2008
- ANDERSEN N.M. 1997: Phylogenetic tests of evolutionary scenarios: the evolution of flightlessness and wing polymorphism in insects. Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. 173: 91-108
- COMMON I.F.B. 1970: Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In Mackerras I.M. (ed.): The Insects of Australia. Melbourne Univ. Press, Melbourne, 866 pp
- DAVIS D.R. & ROBINSON G.S. 1999: The Tineoidea and Gracillarioidea. In Kristensen N.P. (ed.): Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology IV. Arthoropoda: Insecta Part 35, Vol. 1. Walter De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 91-117.
- ENTWISTLE P.F. 1963: Observations on the biology of four species of Psychidae (Lepidoptera) on Theobroma cacao L. in western Nigeria. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (A) 38: 145-152
- FEDOTOV D.M. 1939: On the phenomenon of regressive changes in some bagworm moths (Psychid). Com. Rend. Acad. Sci. U.R.S.S. 24: 616-619
- FRISTROM J.W., FRISTROM D.K., FEKETE E. & KUNIYUKI A.H. 1977: The mechanism of evagination of imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster. Am. Zool. 17: 671-684 Go to original source...
- HACKMANN W. 1966: On wing reduction and loss of wings in Lepidoptera. Notul. Entomol. 46: 1-16
- HAMILTON W.D. 1978: Evolution and diversity under bark. In Mound L.A. & Waloff N. (eds): Diversity of Insect Faunas, Symposia of the Royal Entomological Society of London, No. 9. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp. 154-175
- HEPPNER J.B. 1991: Brachyptery and aptery in Lepidoptera. Trop. Lepid. 2: 11-40
- KAWASAKI H. & IWASHITA Y. 1987: Differentiation of wing disc of the fifth larval instar of Bombyx mori in vitro culture condition. J. Seric. Sci. Jpn 56: 65-71 [in Japanese, with English abstr.]
- LOBBIA S., NIITSU S. & FUJIWARA H. 2003: Female-specific wing degeneration caused by ecdysteroid in the Tussock Moth, Orgyia recens: Hormonal and developmental regulation of sexual dimorphism. J. Insect Sci. 3: 1-7 Go to original source...
- LOKKI J., SUOMALAINEN E., SAURA A. & LANKINEN P. 1975: Genetic polymorphism and evolution in parthenogenetic animals. II. Diploid and polyploid Solenobia teriquetrella (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Genetics 79: 513-525
- MATSUDA R. 1979: Abnormal metamorphosis and arthropod evolution. In Gupta A.P. (eds): Arthropod Phylogeny. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 137-256
- MILNER M.J., BLEASBY A.J. & KELLY S.L. 1984: The role of the peripodial membrane of leg and wing imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster during evagination and differentiation in vitro. W. Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 193: 180-186
- NARDI J.B., NORBY S.-W. & MAGEE-ADAMS S.M. 1987: Cellular events within peripodial epithelia that accompany evagination of Manduca wing discs: conversion of cuboidal epithelia to columnar epithelia. Dev. Biol. 119: 20-26 Go to original source...
- NARDI J.B., GODFREY G.L. & BERGSTROM R.A. 1991: Programmed cell death in the wings of Orgyia leucostigma. J. Morphol. 209: 121-131 Go to original source...
- NIITSU S. 2001: Wing degeneration due to apoptosis in the female of the winter moth, Nyssiodes lefuarius. Entomol. Sci. 4: 1-7
- NIITSU S. 2003: Postembryonic development of the wing imaginal disc in the female wingless bagworm moth, Eumeta variegata (Lepidoptera, Psychidae). J. Morphol. 257: 164-170 Go to original source...
- NUESCH H. 1947: Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen ueber die Fluegelreduktion bei Fumea casta und Solenobia triquetrella und Deutung der Solenobia-Intersexen. Arch. J. Kraus-Stiftung. 22: 221-293
- QUENNEDY A. & QUENNEDY B. 1990: Morphogenesis of the wing anlagen in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor during the last larval instar. Tissue Cell 22: 721-740 Go to original source...
- ROFF D.A. 1990: The evolution of flightlessness in insects. Ecol. Monogr. 60: 389-421 Go to original source...
- SAIGUSA T. 1962: On some basic concepts of the evolution of psychid moths from the points of view of the comparative ethology and morphology Tyo to Ga. 12: 120-143 [in Japanese, with English abstr.]
- SAMESHIMA S., MIURA T. & MATSUMOTO T. 2004: Wing disc development during caste differentiation in the ant Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Evol. Dev. 6: 336-341 Go to original source...
- SATTLER K. 1991: A review of wing reduction in Lepidoptera. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomol.) 60: 243-288
- WAGNER D.L. & LIEBHERR J.K. 1992: Flightlessness in Insects. Trends Ecol. Evol. 7: 216-220 Go to original source...