Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 279-312, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.038

Morphology of the spermatheca in the Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera): Bearing of its diversity on classification and phylogeny

Dominique PLUOT-SIGWALT1, Jerzy A. LIS2
1 Biologie et Évolution des Insectes, École Pratique des Hautes Études et Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 45 rue Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France; e-mail: dps@mnhn.fr
2 Department of Biosystematics, Division of Invertebrate Zoology, University of Opole, Oleska 22, PL-45-052 Opole, Poland; e-mail: cydnus@uni.opole.pl

Cuticular parts of the spermatheca and associated vaginal structures (chiefly the ring sclerites of the parietovaginal glands) have been examined and compared in 190 cydnid species representing 65 genera and all five subfamilies currently recognized in the family (Amnestinae, Cephalocteinae, Cydninae, Garsauriinae, Sehirinae). Four species belonging to genera formerly included within the Cydnidae (Dismegistus, Parastrachia, Thaumastella, Thyreocoris) were also examined. Morphology of the three main parts of the spermatheca [seminal receptacle (distal bulb), intermediate part (pump apparatus), spermathecal duct] is described. Four main types of spermathecae can be recognized from the distal receptacle and the intermediate part: the amaurocorine type (in Sehirinae: Amaurocorini), amnestine type (in Amnestinae), garsauriine type (in Garsauriinae), and "cydnoid" type (in Cephalocteinae + Cydninae: Cydnini, Geotomini + Sehirinae: Sehirini). No synapomorphy of these types was found which suggests that the currently conceived Cydnidae are not monophyletic. Moreover, out of these four types only the "cydnoid" is typically pentatomoidean due to the presence of an intermediate part usually well delimited by two flanges and having always an unsclerotized flexible zone as well as two internal cuticular structures (septum and fretum) partly obstructing the lumen. The simple tubular amaurocorine type is unusual and aberrant within all Pentatomoidea. The amnestine and garsauriine types display some similarities with taxa outside the Pentatomoidea, especially with some lygaeoid or coreoid spermathecae, mainly in the structure of the intermediate part not delimited proximally (absence of flanges) and devoid of the flexible zone. Within the "cydnoid" type, six spermathecal facies can be characterized principally according to the shape of both the apical reservoir along with the intermediate part, and the differentiations of the spermathecal duct. It has been impossible to find any synapomorphy for all species and for the six facies belonging to the "cydnoid" type of spermatheca. We suggest that the Cydnidae as defined presently are probably a polyphyletic group; moreover its main "cydnoid" branch, called by us Cydnidae sensu stricto (Cephalocteinae + Cydninae + Sehirinae: Sehirini) seems to be relatively recent among the Pentatomoidea. Nishadana and Nishocoris are transferred from Garsauriinae back to Cydninae: Cydnini and the tribe Amaurocorini (Sehirinae) is upgraded to a separate subfamily Amaurocorinae stat. nov. Moreover, we regard the Geotomini and the Sehirini both as non-monophyletic and we indicate that by appending them sensu lato (Geotomini "s. l.", Sehirini "s. l.")

Keywords: Heteroptera, Pentatomomorpha, Pentatomoidea, Cydnidae, Amaurocorinae stat. n., vaginal structures, spermatheca, parietovaginal gland, ring sclerite, fecundation canal, morphology, classification, phylogeny

Received: December 14, 2006; Accepted: December 12, 2007; Published: May 15, 2008

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