Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 267-277, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.037

Flower visiting Neuroptera: Mouthparts and feeding behaviour of Nemoptera sinuata (Nemopteridae)

Harald W. KRENN1, Barbara-Amina GEREBEN-KRENN1, Bernhardt M. STEINWENDER1, Alexi POPOV2
1 Department of Evolutionary Biology, University Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria; e-mail: harald.krenn@univie.ac.at
2 National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsar Osvoboditel Blvd 1, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria

The mouthparts of the spoon-winged lacewing Nemoptera sinuata are adapted for the uptake of pollen and nectar. Form and function of the mouthparts are described, and the technique of food uptake is discussed in context with flower-visiting behaviour and floral architecture of the preferred flowers. The maxillae are the main organs for food uptake. The brush-shaped laciniae, galeae and maxillary palpi form a functional unit which can be extended by the action of the cardo-stipes joint. Video analyses of the mouthpart movements distinguished different patterns of maxillary motions which occur in nectar feeding or pollen collecting. The flower-visiting behaviour and the specialised mouthparts of the Nemopteridae are derived traits which probably evolved from predatory and biting/chewing mouthparts within the Neuroptera.

Keywords: Mouthparts, flower-visiting behaviour, pollen, morphology, feeding, insects, Neuroptera, Nemopteridae

Received: August 20, 2007; Accepted: November 7, 2007; Published: May 15, 2008

Download citation

References

  1. ASPOCK H., HOLZEL H. & ASPOCK U. 2001a: Kommentierter Katalog der Neuropterida (Insecta: Raphidioptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera) der Westpalaearktis. Denisia 2: 606 pp
  2. ASPOCK U. 1992: Crucial points in the phylogeny of the Neuroptera (Insecta). In Canard M., AspGck H. & Mansell M. (eds): Current Research in Neuropterology. SACCO, Toulouse, pp. 63-73
  3. ASPOCK U. 2002: Phylogeny of the Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). Zool. Scripta 31: 51-55 Go to original source...
  4. ASPOCK U. & ASPOCK H. 1999: Kamelhaelse, Schlammfliegen, AmeisenlGwen... Wer sind sie? (Insecta: Neuropterida: Raphidioptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera). Stapfia 60: 1-34
  5. ASPOCK U. & ASPOCK H. 2003: 30. Ordnung Neuroptera (Planipennia), Netzfluegler. In Dathe H. (ed.): Lehrbuch der Speziellen Zoologie. Band I: Wirbellose Tiere. 5. Teil: Insecta. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin, pp. 564-584, 890-892
  6. ASPOCK U., PLANT J.D. & NEMESCHKAL H.L. 2001b: Cladistic analysis of Neuroptera and their systematic position within Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola: Neuropterida: Neuroptera). Syst. Entomol. 26: 73-86 Go to original source...
  7. BOCK C. 1987: A quick and simple method for preparing soft insect tissues for scanning electron microscopy using Carnoy and Hexamethyldisilazane. Beitr. Elektronenmikr. Direktabb. Oberflaechen 20: 209-214
  8. GRINFELD E. 1959: Feeding of adult lacewings (Neuroptera) with pollen and their probable role in origin of entomophily in plants. Vest. Leningrad. Univ. 14(9): 48-55 [in Russian]
  9. FUCHS G.-V. 1974: Die Gewinnung von Pollen und Nektar bei Kaefern. Natur Mus. 104(2): 45-54
  10. HARING E. & ASPOCK U. 2004: Phylogeny of the Neuropterida: a first molecular approach. Syst. Entomol. 29: 415-430 Go to original source...
  11. HOLZEL H. 1975: Revision der Netzfluegler-Unterfamilie Crocinae (Neuroptera: Nemopteridae). Entomol. Germ. 2: 44-97
  12. HOLZEL H. 1999: Die Nemopteriden (Fadenhafte) Arabiens. Stapfia 60: 129-146
  13. JOHNSON S.A. & NICOLSON S.W. 2001: Pollen digestion by flower-feeding Scarabaeidae: protea beetles (Cetoniini) and monkey beetles (Hopliini). J. Insect Physiol. 47: 725-733 Go to original source...
  14. KAROLYI F. 2007: Die Mundwerkzeuge des Blueten besuchenden Rosenkaefers Cetonia aurata (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Diploma thesis, University of Vienna, 90 pp
  15. KILLINGTON F.J. 1936: A Monograph of the British Neuroptera. Vol. 1. The Ray Society, London, xx + 269 pp
  16. KRENN H.W., PLANT J. & SZUCSICH N.U. 2005: Mouthparts of flower-visiting insects. Arthr. Struct. Devel. 34: 1-40 Go to original source...
  17. MANSELL M.W. 1977: A new genus and species in the Crocinae (Neuroptera: Nemopteridae) from southern Africa. J. Entomol. Soc. Sth Afr. 40: 195-203
  18. MANSELL M.W. 1980: The Crocinae of southern Africa (Neuroptera: Nemopteridae). 1. The genera Laurhervasia Navas and Thysanocroce Withycombe. J. Entomol. Soc. Sth Afr. 43: 341-365
  19. MANSELL M.W. 1983: New Crocinae (Neuroptera: Nemopteridae) from South America, with descriptions of larvae. J. Entomol. Soc. Sth Afr. 46: 115-130
  20. MANSELL M.W. 1986: Biogeography and phylogeny of the Crocinae (Neuroptera: Nemopteridae). In Gepp J., AspGck H. & HGlzel H. (eds): Recent Research in Neuropterology. Thalerhof, Graz, pp. 77-85
  21. MANSELL M.W. 1992: The systematic position of Nemopteridae (Insecta: Neuroptera: Myrmeleontoidea). In Canard M., AspGck H. & Mansell M.W. (eds): Current Research in Neuropterology. SACCO, Toulouse, pp. 233-241
  22. MANSELL M.W. 1996: Unique morphological and biological attributes: the keys to success in Nemopteridae (Insecta: Neuroptera). In Canard M., AspGck H. & Mansell M.W. (eds): Pure and Applied Research in Neuropterology. SACCO, Toulouse, pp. 171-180
  23. MONSERRAT V.J. 1983: Pterocroce capillaris (Klug, 1836) en Europa (Neur., Plan., Nemopteridae). Neuroptera Intern. 2: 109-128
  24. MONSERRAT V.J. 1985: Nuevos datos sobre los Myrmeleontoidea ibericos (Neur., Plan., Myrmeleonidae, Ascalaphidae, Nemopteridae). Bol. Soc. Portug. Entomol. 2 (Supl. 1): 475-489
  25. MONSERRAT V.J. 1996: Larval stages of European Nemopterinae, with systematic considerations on the family Nemopteridae (Insecta, Neuroptera). Dt. Entomol. Z. 43: 99-121 Go to original source...
  26. MONSERRAT V.J. & MARTINEZ M.D. 1995: On the possible myrmecophily of Nemopterinae larvae (Neuroptera, Nemopteridae). Sociobiology 26: 55-68
  27. NEW T.R. 1989: Planipennia. Lacewings. In Fischer M. (ed.). Handbook of Zoology. Vol. IV. Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 30. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, xi + 132 pp
  28. PERNSTICH A., KRENN H.W. & PASS G. 2003: Preparation of serial sections of arthropods using 2,2-dimethoxypropane dehydration and epoxy resin embedding under vacuum. Biotech. Histochem. 78: 1-5 Go to original source...
  29. PICKER M.D. 1984: A new genus and species of spoon-wing lacewing (Neuroptera: Nemopteridae) from Namaqualand, South Africa. J. Entomol. Soc. Sth Afr. 47: 259-268
  30. PICKER M.D. 1987: An unusual species of spoon-wing lacewing (Neuroptera: Nemopteridae) from South Africa, with notes on its biology. Syst. Entomol. 12: 239-248 Go to original source...
  31. PICKER M.D. & LEON B. 1990: Population biology of Palmipenna aeoleoptera Picker with reference to the possible semaphore function of the hindwings (Insecta: Neuroptera: Nemopteridae). In Mansell M.W. & AspGck H. (eds): Advances in Neuropterology. Department of Agricultural Development, Pretoria, pp. 95-99
  32. POPOV A. 1963: An interesting lacewing insect in Bulgaria, Nemoptera sinuata. Priroda (Sofia) 12(3): 90-93 [in Bulgarian]
  33. POPOV A. 1967: Investigations on the Ecology, Biology and Distribution of Nemoptera sinuata Oliv. (Insecta, Neuroptera). St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Biological Faculty, Sofia, 143 pp. [in Bulgarian]
  34. POPOV A. 1971: Verbreitung der europaeischen NemopteridenArten (Neuroptera). Bull. Inst. Zool. Mus. 32[1970]: 5-31 [in Bulgarian, German and Russian abstr.]
  35. POPOV A. 1973: Uber die praeimaginalen Stadien palaearktischer Vertreter der Ordnung Neuroptera und Versuch einer neuen systematischen Gruppierung der Familien mit Ruecksicht auf ihre morphologischen und Gkologischen Besonderheiten. Bull. Inst. Zool. Mus. 37: 79-101.
  36. POPOV A. 1998: Bionomy and development of Nemoptera sinuata Olivier (Neuroptera, Nemopteridae). Acta Zool. Fenn. 209: 215-216
  37. POPOV A. 2002: Autecology and biology of Nemoptera sinuata Olivier (Neuroptera: Nemopteridae). Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 48 (Suppl. 2): 293-299
  38. POPOV A. 2007: Distribution of the families of Neuroptera with low species diversity in Bulgaria. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Ferrara 8[2005]: 117-130
  39. SIMPSON M.G. 2006: Plant Systematics. Elsevier, Amsterdam, xi + 590 pp
  40. SNODGRASS R.E. 1935: Principles of Insect Morphology. McGraw-Hill, New York, ix + 667 pp
  41. TILLYARD R.J. 1926: The Insects of Australia and New Zealand. Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 560 pp
  42. TJEDER B. 1958: On the insect fauna of Cyprus. Results of the expedition of 1939 by Harald, Hakan and P.H. Lindberg. XI. Neuroptera, collected in Cyprus by Dr. Hakan Lindberg. 1. Fam. Nemopteridae. Comment. Biol. 10 (6): 9 pp
  43. TJEDER B. 1967: Neuroptera - Planipennia. The Lace-wings of Southern Africa. 6. Family Nemopteridae. Sth Afr. Anim. Life 13: 290-501
  44. TJEDER B. 1974: Nemopteridae from the Island of Socotra (Neuroptera) with descriptions of two genera. Entomol. Scand. 5: 291-299 Go to original source...
  45. VILLENAVE J., THIERRY D., MAMUN A.A., LODE T. & RAT-MORRIS E. 2005: The pollens consumed by common green lacewings Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in cabbage crop environment in western France. Eur. J. Entomol. 102: 547-552 Go to original source...
  46. WEBER H. 1933: Lehrbuch der Entomologie. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, xii + 726 pp
  47. WITHYCOMBE C.L. 1925: Some aspects of the biology and morphology of the Neuroptera. With special reference to the immature stages and their possible phylogenetic significance. Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1923: 303-411