Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 185-196, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.027

Geographical patterns of chromosomal differentiation in the brachypterous grasshopper Podisma sapporensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

Elżbieta WARCHAŁOWSKA-ŚLIWA1, Haruki TATSUTA2, Shin-Ichi AKIMOTO3, Anna MARYAŃSKA-NADACHOWSKA1, Marek KOWALCZYK1, Alexander BUGROV4
1 Department of Experimental Zoology, Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sławkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków, Poland; e-mail: warchalowska@isez.pan.krakow.pl
2 Laboratory of Ecological Risk Assessment, Research Centre for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
3 Systematic Entomology, Department of Ecology and Systematics, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-8589, Japan
4 Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk and Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630091 Novosibirsk, Russia

The distribution patterns of the X0/XX and neo-XY/neo-XX chromosome races, subraces, and "hybrids" between subraces of the grasshopper P. sapporensis were analyzed. The origin of the observed variation is Robertsonian translocations between a sex chromosome and an autosome, and chromosome rearrangements. The fixation levels of inversions varied depending on geographic regions. No hybrid population is known implying that a strong reproductive isolation system exists in hybrids between the different chromosomal races. The probable reasons for the purity of X0 and neo-XY chromosome races and high chromosome polymorphism in contact zones between chromosomal subraces are discussed. The presence of isolating barriers between chromosome races indicates a review of the taxonomic structure of P. sapporensis is required. It is proposed to divide P. sapporensis into two sibling species, which differ in the chromosome mechanisms of the sex determination system.The analysis of the distribution of chromosomal races and subraces of P. sapporensis allows a reconstruction of the history of this species in the Okhotsk sea region.

Keywords: Grasshoppers, Acrididae, Podisma, chromosomes, evolution, polymorphism, chromosome races

Received: August 22, 2007; Accepted: October 23, 2007; Published: May 15, 2008

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