Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 53-58, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.007

Chromosome number, karyotype morphology, heterochromatin distribution and nuclear DNA content of some talitroidean amphipods (Crustacea: Gammaridea)

Angelo LIBERTINI, Renata TRISOLINI, Massimiliano RAMPIN
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Scienze Marine, Sezione di Venezia, Riva 7 Martiri 1364/a, 30122 Venezia, Italy;

Chromosome number, karyotype formula, C-banding pattern, genome size and DNA base composition were studied in three species of Hyalidae and seven species of Talitridae. A karyotype of 25 chromosome pairs, with median centromeres (FN = 100), was found in all the species of Talitridae analysed and Apohyale prevostii. Genome size (C-value) varies among Talitrida from 0.94 pg in Apohyale crassipes to 2.81 pg in Orchestia gammarellus, and the percentage of AT-DNA in the whole genome ranges from 56.12% in A. crassipes to 68.17% in Sardorchestia pelecaniformis. In comparison with Hyalidae, Talitridae show more uniformity in chromosome number and karyotype formula, and have larger genomes. There is a direct correlation between total DNA content and the amount of C-heterochromatic DNA. The cytogenetical data on Talitrida were compared from a phylogenetic and an evolutional point of view. The increase in genome size during the evolution of the Talitrida possibly had a role in their adaptation to supralittoral life and extreme subaerial conditions.

Keywords: Amphipoda, cytogenetics, karyotype evolution, genome size, terrestrial life, adaptation

Received: May 15, 2007; Accepted: August 30, 2007; Published: February 15, 2008

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